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Transforming Self and Others Through Research: Transpersonal Research Methods and Skills for the Human Sciences and Humanities by Rosemarie Anderson and William Braud (SUNY Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology: SUNY Press) Research approaches in the field of transpersonal psychology can be transformative for researchers, participants, and the audience of a project. Transforming Self and Others Through Research offers these transformative approaches to those conducting research across the human sciences and the humanities. Rosemarie Anderson and William Braud first described such methods in their book Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences (1998). Since that time, in hundreds of empirical studies, these methods have been tested and integrated with qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research designs. Anderson, Professor of Transpersonal Psychology at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology and Braud, Professor Emeritus at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, writing with a contribution from Jennifer Clements, invite scholars to bring multiple ways of knowing and personal resources to their scholarship. While emphasizing established research conventions for rigor, Anderson and Braud encourage researchers to plumb the depths of intuition, imagination, play, mindfulness, compassion, creativity, and embodied writing as research skills. Experiential exercises to help readers develop these skills are provided. More

The Postconventional Personality: Assessing, Researching, and Theorizing Higher Development  by Angela H. Pfaffenberger, Paul W. Marko and Allan Combs (SUNY Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology: State University of New York Press, SUNY) Cutting-edge volume devoted to optimal adult development. Postconventional stages of personality development involve growth well beyond the average, and have become a rapidly growing subject of research not only in developmental psychology circles but also in areas such as executive leadership development. This book is the first to bring together many of the major researchers in the field, showcasing diverse perspectives ranging from the spiritual to the corporate. The contributors present research on essential questions about the existence and prevalence of high levels of personal growth, whether such achievement is correlated with other types of psychological growth, whether high levels of growth actually indicate happiness, what kinds of people exhibit these higher levels of development, how they may have developed this expanded perspective, and the characteristics of their viewpoints, abilities, and preoccupations. For anyone interested in Ken Wilber's integral psychology, as well as those in executive coaching, this volume is an invaluable resource and will be a standard reference for years to come. More 

Primate Communication and Human Language: Vocalisation, gestures, imitation and deixis in humans and non-humans edited by Anne Vilain, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Christian Abry and Jacques Vauclair (Advances in Interaction Studies Series, Vol. 1: John Benjamins Publishing Company)
After a long period where it has been conceived as iconoclastic and almost forbidden, the question of language origins is now at the center of a rich debate, confronting acute proposals and original theories. Most importantly, the debate is nourished by a large set of experimental data from disciplines surrounding language. The editors of Primate Communication and Human Language have gathered researchers from various fields, with the common objective of taking as seriously as possible the search for continuities from non-human primate vocal and gestural communication systems to human speech and language, in a multidisciplinary perspective combining ethology, neuroscience, developmental psychology and linguistics, as well as computer science and robotics. New data and theoretical elaborations on the emergence of referential communication and language are debated by some of the most creative scientists in the world.
Editors of the volume are Anne Vilain, Universite de Grenoble and GIPSA-Lab; Jean-Luc Schwartz, CNRS GIPSA-Lab, Grenoble; Christian Abry, Stendhal University (Grenoble, 1971-2009); and Jacques Vauclair, Universite de Provence, Aix-en-Provence. More

Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration by Robyn Ryle (Pine Forge Press / Sage) Questioning Gender is a one-of-a-kind text designed to launch readers into a thoughtful encounter with gender issues. Rather than providing definitive answers about gender, the book, written by Robyn Ryle, associate professor of Sociology at Hanover College in Hanover, Indiana, exposes readers to new material that leads them to question their assumptions. Ryle uses both historical and cross-cultural approaches as well as a focus on intersectionality and transgender issues to help students understand the socially-constructed nature of gender. Debunking ideas of what is normal and abnormal, this book explores the core theories and topics, including the gender of sexuality, the gender of friendship and dating, the gender of media and popular culture, and the gender of politics and power. More 

New Dangerous Liaisons: Discourses on Europe and Love in the Twentieth Century by Luisa Passerini, Liliana Ellena, and Alexander C. T. Geppert (Making Sense of History: Berghahn) In Europe, love has been given a prominent place in European self-representations from the Enlightenment onwards. The category of love, stemming from private and personal spheres, was given a public function and used to distinguish European civilization from others. Contributors to this volume trace historical links and analyze specific connections between the two discourses on love and Europe over the course of the twentieth century, exploring the distinctions made between the public and private, the political and personal. In doing so, this volume develops an innovative historiography that includes such resources as autobiographies, love letters, and cinematic representations and takes issue with the exclusivity of Eurocentrism. Its contributors put forth hypotheses about the historical pre-eminence of emotions and consider this history as a basis for a non-Eurocentric understanding of new possible European identities.  More

Jung in the 21st Century Volume One: Evolution and Archetype by John Ryan Haule (Routledge) The first volume provides an original overview of Jung's work, demonstrating that it is fully compatible with contemporary views in science. It draws on a wide range of scientific disciplines including, evolution, neurobiology, primatology, archaeology and anthropology.

Divided into three parts, areas of discussion include:

  • evolution, archetype and behavior
  • individuation, complexes and theory of therapy
  • Jung's psyche and its neural substrate
  • the transcendent function
  • history of consciousness.

Jung in the 21st Century Volume One: Evolution and Archetype, is an invaluable resource for all those in the field of analytical psychology, including students of Jung, psychoanalysts and psychotherapists with an interest in the meeting of Jung and science.

Jung in the 21st Century Volume Two: Synchronicity and Science by John Ryan Haule (Routledge) The second volume explores Jung's understanding of synchronicity and argues that it offers an important contribution to contemporary science. Whilst the scientific world has often ignored Jung's theories as being too much like mysticism, Haule argues that what the human psyche knows beyond sensory perception is extremely valuable.

Divided into two parts, areas of discussion include:

  • shamanism and mastery
  • border zones of exact science
  • meditation, parapsychology and psychokinesis.

Jung in the 21st Century Volume Two Synchronicity and Science continues to be an invaluable resource for all those in the field of analytical psychology, including students of Jung, psychoanalysts and psychotherapists with an interest in the meeting of Jung and science. More

The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist's Quest for What Makes Us Human by V. S. Ramachandran (W.W. Norton) Drawing on strange and thought-provoking case studies, a neurologist in The Tell-Tale Brain offers insight into the evolution of the uniquely human brain.
Preeminent neuroscientist V. S. Ramachandran, the director of the Center for Brain and Cognition and a professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California, San Diego, is at the forefront of his field. One of the most original and daring neuroscientists of our age, Ramachandran has spent much of his life's work expanding our understanding of the human brain. His pioneering spirit and innovative methods have resulted in Richard Dawkins dubbing him the Marco Polo of neuroscience. And Nobel laureate Eric Kandel hails Ramachandran as the modern Paul Broca, referring to the founding father of neurology. But if Ramachandran takes after anyone, it may just be Sherlock Holmes. More

Mixing Minds: The Power of Relationship in Psychoanalysis and Buddhism by Pilar Jennings and Jeremy D. Safran (Wisdom Publications) THE ENCOUNTER between Buddhism and Western psychotherapy has a long history. Carl Jung had an early interest in both Western and Eastern mystical traditions, and in 1954 wrote a psychological commentary for Walter Evans-Wentz's translation of The Tibetan Book of the Dead (first published in 1927). Other influential psychoanalysts' followed suit: in the 1950s and 1960s Erich Fromm and Karen Homey took a particular interest in Zen Buddhism. While in retrospect we can see that this interest continued to percolate in the culture at large, in many respects it disappeared from the mainstream scene and went underground within psychoanalysis. In the 1990s as Buddhism became more thoroughly assimilated into Western culture, and a generation of authors who came of age in the 1960s began to emerge, the interest in Buddhism by psychoanalysts began to resurface. A series of books on Buddhism and psychoanalysis were published by authors such as Jack Engler, Mark Epstein, Jeffiey Rubin, John Suler, Anthony Molino, and Barry Magid, and isolated articles began to appear here and there in professional and popular journals.
Jennings and Safran offer not only a survey of the encounter but also suggests where the encounter has mutually informative and transformative to booster clinical practice and the enhance buddhist practice. More

Shine: Using Brain Science to Get the Best from Your People by Edward M. Hallowell (Harvard Business Review Press)
Great managers serve others; they develop the shine in their people.
In Shine, bestselling author and ADD expert Edward Hallowell draws on brain science, performance research, and his own experience helping people maximize their potential to present a proven process for getting the best from their people.
The central question for all managers in these pressure-packed, confusing, unsettled times is how to draw the most from their talent. Finding the shine in someone, helping all ones people perform at their highest levels, isn't rocket science. It is brain science, but it has yet to be codified into a simple and reliable process that all managers can use. In Shine, Hallowell formulates such a code, the Cycle of Excellence. It is a process that he has created and honed over the past twenty-five years as a doctor, practicing psychiatrist, author, consultant, instructor at the Harvard Medical School and director of the Hallowell Center for Cognitive and Emotional Health. He explains peak performance and provides managers with a practical plan to bring the best from the people who work for them. More 

New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness  by Elaine K. Perry, Daniel Collerton,  Fiona E.N. LeBeau, and  Heather Ashton (Advances in Consciousness Research: John Benjamins Publishing Company) A fascinating cornucopia of new ideas, based on fundamentals of neurobiology, psychology, psychiatry and therapy, this book extends boundaries of current concepts of consciousness. Its eclectic mix will simulate and challenge not only neuroscientists and psychologists but entice others interested in exploring consciousness. Contributions from top researchers in consciousness and related fields project diverse ideas, focused mainly on conscious nonconscious interactions:

  1. Paving the way for new research on basic scientific -physiological, pharmacological or neurochemical - mechanisms underpinning conscious experience (`bottom up' approach);
  2. Providing directions on how psychological processes are involved in consciousness (`top down' approach);
  3. Indicating how including consciousness could lead to new understanding of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, dementia, and addiction;
  4. More provocatively, but still based on scientific evidence, exploring consciousness beyond conventional boundaries, indicating the potential for radical new thinking or 'quantum leaps' in neuroscientific theories of consciousness.

This is a unique book on consciousness. It is a fascinating cornucopia of new ideas on the subject, based on the fundamentals of neurobiology, psychology, psychiatry and therapy that extends the boundaries of current concepts of consciousness. Readers, not only neuroscientists and psychologists but also professionals from other quarters of the academic world with a general interest in exploring consciousness, should find this eclectic mix as stimulating and challenging as we do. More

Essentials of Psychiatry edited by Robert E. Hales, Stuart C. Yudofsky, Glen O. Gabbard(American Psychiatric Publishing) provides a synopsis of the most important clinical material included within the fifth edition of The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, a work hailed as the best reference for the majority of practicing psychiatrists (Doody s Book Reviews). Revised and updated to incorporate the latest research findings, this economical paperback abridgement of the Textbook presents, in distilled form, the core knowledge base of clinical psychiatry by focusing on information of greatest relevance to the practicing clinician. This unique text reflects the collaborative efforts of more than 50 contributing junior and senior authors. The resulting blend of new insights and fresh perspectives with penetrating wisdom and vast research and clinical experience enriches the material and increases its appeal to readers of diverse backgrounds and levels of educational and clinical experience. A broad, integrated knowledge of medicine, psychology, and neuroscience is the foundation of psychiatric practice and the optimal basis for treatment decisions. Essentials of Psychiatry, Third Edition, makes this key knowledge accessible to psychiatry residents and practitioners alike and will also prove useful to physicians in other fields (e.g., family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics, neurology), as well as to interested laypersons and nonmedical professionals such as clergy and members of the bar.  More

Jungian Psychoanalysis: Working in the Spirit of Carl Jung by Murray Stein (Open Court) Written by 40 of the most notable Jungian psychoanalysts — spanning 11 countries, and boasting decades of study and expertise — Jungian Psychoanalysis represents the pinnacle of Jungian thought. This handbook brings up to date the perspectives in the field of clinically applied analytical psychology, centering on five areas of interest: the fundamental goals of Jungian psychoanalysis, the methods of treatment used in pursuit of these goals, reflections on the analytic process, the training of future analysts, and special issues, such as working with trauma victims, handicapped patients, or children and adolescents, and emergent religious and spiritual issues. Discussing not only the history of Jungian analysis but its present and future applications, this book marks a major contribution to the worldwide study of psychoanalysis. More

Religious and Spiritual Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Research Agenda for DSM-V by John R. Peteet, Francis G. Lu, and William E. Narrow (American Psychiatric Publishing) The relationship between spirituality and mental health has been the focus of growing interest and research over the last decade. However, the implications for psychiatric classification are only beginning to be systematically explored. Religious and Spiritual Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Research Agenda for DSM-V gathers for the first time the collective contributions of the prominent clinicians and researchers who participated in the 2006 Corresponding Committee on Religion, Spirituality and Psychiatry of the American Psychiatric Association. The symposium was an attempt to expand the current DSM text on "Specific Culture, Age, and Gender Features" and "Differential Diagnosis" to include the impact of religious/spiritual factors on phenomenology, differential diagnosis, course, outcome, and prognosis. The philosophical issues at stake in the differential diagnosis of spiritual versus psychiatric conditions are explored at length, as is the case for updating the V Code for a Spiritual or Religious Problem. Two expert commentaries follow each chapter and seek to contextualize and extend the research, analysis, and recommendations presented. Mental health clinicians who seek to practice in a more holistic, integrative manner will find in this unique and important volume the theoretical and practical foundations to support and further their work. More

The Expression of Time by Wolfgang Klein, Wolfgang Klein, and Ping Li (The Expression of Cognitive Categories: De Gruyter Mouton) Time is the most fundamental category of human cognition and action, and all human languages have developed many devices to express it. These include verbal categories, such as tense and aspect, but also adverbials, particles, and principles of discourse organisation. The book consists of what are essentially tutorials on the various notions of time, their encoding in different languages, on the formal semantics, the computer modelling and the acquisition of temporality. It also includes chapters on the mental representation and on culture-specific perspectivation of time and event structure. It concludes with a comprehensive bibliography. More

High-Yield Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Brief Sessions: An Illustrated Guide, includes DVD by Jesse H. Wright, Donna M. Sudak, Douglas Turkington, Michael E. Thase (American Psychiatric Publishing)
High-Yield Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Brief Sessions: An Illustrated Guide breaks entirely new ground in explaining how to weave together the powerful tools of CBT with pharmacotherapy in sessions shorter than the traditional "50-minute hour." Written for psychiatrists, therapists, and other clinicians, the book details ways to enrich brief sessions with practical CBT interventions that work to relieve symptoms and promote wellness.
An engaging and instructive resource of video illustrations included with the book demonstrates how to successfully implement brief CBT sessions for some of the most common and important problems seen in clinical practice—depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms, suicidality, sleep disturbances, substance abuse, and coping with physical health issues. Written by practicing clinicians with extensive experience in combining CBT and pharmacotherapy, this volume builds on the constructs and techniques described in the authors' earlier best-selling illustrated guides, Learning Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Severe Mental Illness.
A must-read for working clinicians as well as trainees, this book offers pragmatic solutions for the challenge of providing effective psychotherapy in brief treatment sessions.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders: A Clinical Handbook edited by John F. Clarkin, Ph.D., Peter Fonagy, Ph.D., and Glen O. Gabbard (American Psychiatric Publishing) This well-documented and articulate manual gathers in one place the psychodynamic psychotherapy thinking and research on each of the Axis II personality disorders. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Personality Disorders: A Clinical Handbook includes the work of 22 contributing writers in addition to the three primary authors, John F. Clarkin, Ph.D., Peter Fonagy, Ph.D., and Glen O. Gabbard, M.D. Each contributor has extensive clinical experience, and some also have research experience, with the assessment and treatment of specific personality disorders. The focus of the book is the psychodynamic conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of the personality disorders as currently described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The 16 chapters are divided into sections that address the definition of personality pathology, approaches to treatment, and research for future directions. The authors conclude that to the surprise of many new research and reviews indicate that psychodynamic treatments are effective for personality disorders, and their impact is as great as that of cognitive-behavioral treatments. More

Handbook of Motivation and Change: A Practical Guide for Clinicians by Petros Levounis, Bachaar Arnaout (American Psychiatric Publishing) is a busy clinician s guide to motivational interviewing. With a special focus on substance use disorders and addiction, this unique handbook equips readers with a full understanding of the Motivational Interviewing approach an understanding that readers can flexibly apply to address patients issues of motivation and change even beyond substance use. The handbook is written by more than 20 practitioners of different psychotherapies who employ motivational work. This volume features a collection of case studies punctuated by movie references that illustrate discussed concepts, practical suggestions for treatment and trainee supervision, and summary key points and multiple-choice questions for readers. Authors focus on interventions ranging from psychopharmacology to support groups, zero in on the unique challenges of treating patients at various stages of their lives, examine how motivational work can change a culture, and discuss the evidence base of this effective and compelling therapy. The practical reach of this handbook will appeal not only to the general psychiatrist but to family practitioners, internists, pediatricians, medical students, and allied professionals. More than a how-to, this book provides clinicians with expert insight and information that will help them meet their patients in the midst of the very real challenges of motivation and lasting change. More

Social Psychology, 7th ed. by John D. DeLamater and Daniel J. Myers (Wadsworth Publishing) This social psychology text, written by well-known sociologists, covers such topics as socialization, self, attitudes, communication, social influence, interpersonal attraction and relationships, behavior in small groups, life course, and personality and social structure. As readers move through the book, they will explore answers to a wide variety of questions, such as: What decides who someone will fall in love with? Where do aggressive, violent, and criminal behaviors come from? Why are some people more charitable than others? Why do some people obey authority and conform while others always have to buck the trend? Why are some people lazier when they work in groups? What is the source of people's stereotypes and prejudices? What causes conflict between groups? And finally, what makes us who we are? More

Textbook of Pediatric Psychosomatic Medicine by Richard J. Shaw, David R. DeMaso (American Psychiatric Publishing) Psychosomatic pediatric psychiatry is one of the most complex specialties of medicine. This textbook manages to provide practitioners with all the necessary tools to successfully operate in this domain and provide children, parents, and pediatricians with much needed support and assistance in managing the overlap between psychiatric and pediatric illness. Psychosomatic medicine was recently recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, prompting creation of the first comprehensive edited volume on pediatric psychosomatic medicine by leading U.S. and international practitioners. More

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology by John Symons and Paco Calvo (Routledge Philosophy Companions) is an invaluable guide and major reference source to the major topics, problems, concepts and debates in philosophy of psychology and is the first companion of its kind. A team of renowned international contributors provide forty-two chapters organised into six clear parts:

  • I. Historical background to the philosophy of psychology
  • II. Psychological explanation
  • III. Cognition and representation
  • IV. The biological basis of psychology
  • V. Perceptual experience
  • VI. Personhood

The Companion covers key topics such as the origins of experimental psychology; folk psychology; behaviorism and functionalism; philosophy, psychology and neuroscience; the language of thought, modularity, nativism and representational theories of mind; consciousness and the senses; personal identity; the philosophy of psychopathology and dreams, emotion and temporality. More

The Gendered Unconscious: Can Gender Discourses Subvert Psychoanalysis? by Louise Gyler (Routledge)Feminist interventions in psychoanalysis have often attempted either to subvert or re-frame the masculinist and phallocentric biases of Freud's psychoanalysis. This book investigates the nature of these interventions by comparing the status and treatment of women in two different psychoanalytic models: the Kleinian and the feminist models. It argues that, in fact, these interventions have historically tended to reinforce such biases by collapsing the distinction between the gendered minds of individuals and theories of gender.
This investigation is framed by two steps. First, in assessing the position of women and the feminine in psychoanalysis, The Gendered Unconscious explores not only the ways they are represented in theory, but also how these representations function in practice. Secondly, this book uses a framework of a comparative dialogue to highlight the assumptions and values that underpin the theory and clinical practice in the two psychoanalytic models. This comparative critique concludes with the counter-intuitive claim that contemporary Kleinian theory may, in practice, hold more radical possibilities for the interests of women than the practices derived from contemporary psychoanalytic gender theory. More

The Mind in Context edited by Batja Mesquita PhD, Lisa Feldman Barrett PhD, Eliot R. Smith PhD (The Guilford Press) Most psychology research still assumes that mental processes are internal to the person, waiting to be expressed or activated. This compelling book illustrates that a new paradigm is forming in which contextual factors are considered central to the workings of the mind. Leading experts explore how psychological processes emerge from the transactions of individuals with their physical, social, and cultural environments. The volume showcases cutting-edge research on the contextual nature of such phenomena as gene expression, brain networks, the regulation of hormones, perception, cognition, personality, knowing, learning, and emotion. More

Grendel and His Mother: Healing the Traumas of Childhood Through Dreams, Imagery and Hypnosis by Nicholas E. Brink (Imagery and Human Development Series) Whereas a dream is specific to an individual dreamer, a myth is an ancestral dream generated by a culture. Both dream and myth describe the processes of the unconscious mind, myth as the unconscious process on a universal level applicable to all.

One cause of the behavioral, emotional and mental torment in a person's life is the psychological trauma that results from the actions and words of parents and others. This volume, Grendel and His Mother: Healing the Traumas of Childhood Through Dreams, Imagery and Hypnosis by Nicholas E. Brink examines the effect of such trauma on a child's development and how the resulting torment eventually brings this child as an adult to psychotherapy. This trauma may be as subtle as a parental sigh of disappointment or as direct as physical or sexual abuse. Six clients are then led on a journeying through the unconscious mind using dreamwork, hypnosis and imagery in the course of therapy to uncover and heal these traumas to free the client of torment. More

On Behalf of the Mystical Fool: Jung on the Religious Situation by John P. Dourley (Routledge) Jung's explanation of the religious tendency of the psyche addresses many sides of the contemporary debate on religion and the role that it has in individual and social life. This book discusses the emergence of a new mythic consciousness and details ways in which this consciousness supersedes traditional concepts of religion to provide a spirituality of more universal inclusion.
On Behalf of the Mystical Fool examines Jung's critique of traditional western religion, demonstrating the negative consequences of religious and political collective unconsciousness, and their consequent social irresponsibility in today's culture. The book concludes by suggesting that a new religiosity and spirituality is currently emerging in the West based on the individual’s access to the sense of ultimacy residual in the psyche, and seeking expression in a myth of a much wider compass.

This book will be of interest to scholars and students at all levels who are engaged in the expanding field of Jungian studies. It will also be key reading for anyone interested in the theoretical and therapeutic connections between the psyche and religious experience. More

The Red Book by C. G. Jung, edited by Sonu Shamdasani (W. W. Norton & Company) The Red Book, also known as Liber Novus (Latin for A New Book), is a 205-page manuscript written and illustrated by Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung between approximately 1914 and 1930, which was not published or shown to the public until 2009. Until 2001, his heirs denied scholars access to the book, which he began after a falling-out with Sigmund Freud in 1913. Jung originally titled the manuscript Liber Novus (literally meaning A New Book in Latin), but it was informally known and published as The Red Book. The book is written in calligraphic text and contains the many illuminations. More

Localizing the Moral Sense: Neuroscience and the Search for the Cerebral Seat of Morality, 1800-1930 by Jan Verplaetse (Springer) Due to the current revolution in brain research the search for the "moral brain" became a serious endeavour. Nowadays, neural circuits that are indispensable for moral and social behaviour are discovered and the brains of psychopaths and criminals - the classical anti-heroes of morality - are scanned with curiosity, even enthusiasm.
How revolutionary this current research might be, the quest for a localisable ethical centre or moral organ is far from new The moral brain was a recurrent theme in the works of neuroscientists during the 19th and 20th century. From the phrenology era to the encephalitis pandemic in the 1920s a wide range of European and American scientists (neurologists, psychiatrists, anthropologists and criminologists) speculated about and discussed the location of a moral sense in the human cortex.

The Mystery of Analytical Work: Weavings From Jung and Bion by Barbara Stevens Sullivan (Routledge) This book provides an exploration of the clinical practice of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. It explores the ways psychoanalysts and other clinicians are taught to evade direct emotional connections with their patients. Sullivan, suggesting that relatedness is the basis of emotional health, examines the universal struggle between socially oriented energies that struggle toward truth and narcissistic impulses that push us to take refuge in lies. She maintains that, rather than making interpretations, it is the clinician’s capacity to bring relatedness to the clinical encounter which is the crucial factor. More

Understanding Consciousness: Second Edition by Max Velmans (Routledge) provides a unique survey and evaluation of consciousness studies, along with an original analysis of consciousness that combines scientific findings, philosophy and common sense. Building on the widely praised first edition, this new edition adds fresh research, and deepens the original analysis in a way that reflects some of the fundamental changes in the understanding of consciousness that have taken place over the last 10 years.  More

Concepts of the Self 2nd edition by Anthony Elliott (Key Concepts:  Polity Press) The chapters that follow are designed to introduce students to concepts and theories of the self within the social sciences. The book aims to examine critically the ideas, concepts and theories of the self that are used in social analysis while also discussing key areas in which such approaches have produced elucidation of the experience of self-identity, selfhood and personal identity.More

Handbook of Imagination and Mental Simulation by Keith Markman, Julie A. Suhr, William M. P. Klein (Psychology Press) Editors Overview:  Since the early 1980s, researchers have been examining fascinating questions regarding the nature of mental simulation: the act of imagination and the generation of alternative realities. Some researchers have focused on what happens in the brain when an individual is mentally simulating an action or forming a mental image, whereas others have focused on the consequences of mental simulation processes for affect, motivation, and behavior.

The purpose of gathering these essays is to achieve a novel and stimulating integration of work on imagination and mental simulation from a variety of perspectives. It is our hope that such a mul-tidisciplinary volume will encourage an exchange of ideas that will benefit psychology. Although a number of excellent volumes have recently been published that examine the role of time perspective in decision making and social psychology more generally (e.g. Loewenstein, Read, & Baumeister, 2003; Sanna & Chang, 2006), we have elected to cut an even wider swath. Thus, the present volume includes chapters on mental representation; simulated movement and its relationship with actual motor movement; visual imagery; and how individuals use mental simulation to infer the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of others. Our goal is to forward the notion that a wide range of mental simulation phenomena share a commonality of underlying processes. To so, we have invited neuro-scientists, developmental psychologists, cognitive psychologists, social psychologists, and clinical psychologists to unite under the same umbrella. By the end of this book, it should be clear that men-tal simulation is associated with a multifaceted but well-integrated array of biological, neurological, psychological, and social processes. More

Connecting People with Technology: Issues in Professional Communication Edited by George F. Hayhoe and Helen M. Grady (Baywood) explores five important areas where technology affects society, and suggests ways in which human communication can facilitate the use of that technology.  Usability has become a foundational discipline in technical and professional communication that grows out of our rhetorical roots, which emphasize purpose and audience. As our appreciation of audience has grown beyond engineers and scientists to lay users of technology, our appreciation of the diversity of those audiences in terms of age, geography, and other factors has similarly expanded.  More

Affect Imagery Consciousness: Volume I: The Positive Affects and Volume II: The Negative Affects;
Affect Imagery Consciousness: Volume III: The Negative Affects: Anger and Fear and Volume IV: Cognition: Duplication and Transformation of Information by Silvan S. Tomkins (Springer Publishing Company) The writings that have become this massive masterwork consumed him from the mid-1950s through the end of his life in 1991. Knowing it was his "lifework," Tomkins conflated "life" and "work," reifying the superstition that its completion would equal death and refusing to release for publication long-completed material. He knew the risks associated with this obsessive, neurotic behavior, and the results were as bad as predicted. The first two volumes of Affect Imagery Consciousness (AIC) were released in 1962 and 1963, Volume III in 1991 shortly before he succumbed to a particularly virulent strain of small cell lymphoma, and Volume IV a year after his death. Only one vendor, the Joseph Fox Bookshop of Philadelphia, maintained the entire set in stock and handled the needs of scholars all over the world for it as well as the other books written by our group.
This last book contains Tomkins's understanding of neocortical cognition, ideas that are even now exciting, but until this current publication of his work as a single supervolume, almost nobody has read it. The bulk of his audience had died along with the enthusiasm generated by his ideas. Big science is now more a matter of big machines and unifocal discoveries as the basis for pars pro toto reasoning than big ideas based on the assembly and analysis of all that is known. Tomkins ignored nothing from any science past or present that might lead him toward a more certain understanding of the mind. Every idea, every theory deserved attention if only because significant observations can loiter in blind alleys. This present publication of the entire set as what we have come to call a supervolume has been made possible by a grant from the 1675 Foundation, which has taken special interest in The Silvan S. Tomkins Institute’s work to encourage the study and research of Tomkins masterwork. By allowing the Tomkins Institute to underwrite this publication and act as co-publisher, the new management of Springer Publishing Company has been able to make Affect Imagery Consciousness both affordable and accessible to a large audience. More

Curious Emotions by Ralph D. Ellis (John Benjamins Pub Co) Emotion drives all cognitive processes, largely determining their qualitative feel, their structure, and in part even their content. Action-initiating centers deep in the emotional brain ground our understanding of the world by enabling us to imagine how we could act relative to it, based on endogenous motivations to engage certain levels of energy and complexity. Thus understanding personality, cognition, consciousness and action requires examining the workings of dynamical systems applied to emotional processes in living organisms. If an object's meaning depends on its action affordances, then understanding intentionality in emotion or cognition requires exploring why emotion is the bridge between action and representational processes such as thought or imagery; and this requires integrating phenomenology with neurophysiology. The resulting viewpoint, "enactivism," entails specific new predictions, and suggests that emotions are about the self-initiated actions of dynamical systems, not reactive "responses" to external events; consciousness is more about motivated anticipation than reaction to inputs. More

Emotion Explained by Edmund T. Rolls (Series in Affective Science: Oxford University Press) excerpt: What produces emotions? Why do we have emotions? How do we have emotions? Why do emotional states feel like something? This book seeks explanations of emotion by considering these questions.

One of the distinctive properties of this book is that it develops a conceptual and evolutionary approach (see for example Chapters 2 and 3) to emotion. This approach shows how cognitive states can produce and modulate emotion, and in turn how emotional states can influence cognition. Another distinctive property is that this book links these approaches to studies on the brain, at the level of neuronal neurophysiology, which provides much of the primary data about how the brain operates; but also to neuropsychological studies of patients with brain damage; to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (and other neuroimaging) approaches; and to computational neuroscience approaches. The author per­forms research in all these areas, and this may help the approach to emotion described here to span many levels of investigation. The empirical evidence that is brought to bear is largely from non-human primates and from humans, because of the considerable similarity of their visual and emotional systems associated with the great development of the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes in primates, and because the overall aim is to understand how emotion is implemented in the human brain, and the disorders that arise after brain damage. More 

Rational Animals? edited by Susan Hurley, Matthew Nudds (Oxford University Press) Are any nonhuman animals rational? What issues are we raising when we ask this question? Are there different kinds or levels of rationality, some of which fall short of full human rationality? Should any behaviour by nonhuman animals be regarded as rational? What kinds of tasks can animals successfully perform? From what kinds of processes does their behaviour result, and do they count as rational processes? Is it useful or theoretically justified to raise questions about the rationality of animals at all? Should we be interested in whether they are rational? Why does it matter? More

Emotion and Reason: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Decision Making by Alain Berthoz, translated by Giselle Weiss (Oxford University Press) (Papercover) It is always advisable to perceive clearly our ignorance. (Charles Darwin) We need to completely change, and perhaps even reverse, the way we think about making decisions. We are emerging from a century dominated by the power of reason. As the sine qua non of science, reason allowed us to discover the fundamental properties of matter and, armed with technology, to transplant the heart, symbol of love, from one chest to another. Reason brought us the moon, favoured muse of poets, and soon it will take us to Mars. Even now reason is enabling us to probe the brain—that extraordinary product of evolution—for the neural basis of the most sophisticated workings of cog­nition. It was reason that removed the demons believed to torment the brains of epileptic children and reason that vindicated the parents of children afflicted with disorders such as autism and schizophrenia—attributed until only recently to psycho­logical trauma—by revealing their genetic origin. Reason underpins our conviction that the decisions our doctors make, like those made by our politicians, are the result of a logical analysis of observable phenomena.
But this rational thinking—arrived from Euphrates by way of Sumer, Jerusalem, Cairo, Athens, and Rome, this curious child of the East and West, of Arabic mathemati­cians and of astronomers from every continent who taught that we can predict the very movements of the planets—cannot be said to be a product of the Age of the Enlightenment. It is stiff and impersonal. It is indifferent to the soft fog of uncertainty; it shields itself from the wonders and vagaries of the imagination, and would have us believe that the world is amenable to reckoning, that the Vietnam War can be won by the Pentagon's computers. More

Emotions: Their Rationality & Consistency by Marion Ledwig (Peter Lang Publishing) stands in the tradition of current emotion theorists, such as Elster, Damasio, de Sousa, Greenspan, Nussbaum, and Solomon, who advance the rationality of the emotions. Yet this book goes beyond their accounts, for it not only defends the view that emotions can be termed rational, but also considers in which different senses emotions can be termed rational. Besides discussing whether emotional intelligence and emotional consistency are forms of emotional rationality, this book makes clear how far this view on the rationality of the emotions can be generalized: whether it can, for instance, be generalized to computers having rational emotions and whether emotional responses to art can be considered to be rational. This book draws not only on knowledge from neuroscience, cognitive science, and philosophy of mind, but also on evolutionary theory and developmental psychology, to substantiate its position. More

Symptom-Focused Dynamic Psychotherapy by Mary E. Connors (The Analytic Press) Traditionally, psychoanalytically oriented clinicians have eschewed a direct focus on symptoms, viewing it as superficial turning away from underlying psychopathology. But this assumption is an artifact of a dated classical approach; it should be reexamined in the light of contemporary relational thinking. So argues Mary Connors in Symptom-Focused Dynamic Psychotherapy, an integrative project that describes cognitive-behavioral techniques that have been demonstrated to be empirically effective and may be productively assimilated into dynamic psychotherapy. What is the warrant for symptom-focused interventions in psychodynamic treatment? Connors argues that the deleterious impact of symptoms on the patient's physical and emotional well being often impedes psychodynamic engagement. Symptoms associated with addictive disorders, eating disorders, OCD, and posttraumatic stress receive special attention. With patients suffering from these and other symptoms, Connors finds, specific cognitive-behavior techniques may relieve symptomatic distress and facilitate a psychodynamic treatment process, with its attentiveness to the therapeutic relationship and the analysis of transference-countertransference. Connors' model of integrative psychotherapy, which makes cognitive-behavioral techniques responsive to a comprehensive understanding of symptom etiology, offers a balanced perspective that attends to the relational embeddedness of symptoms without skirting the therapeutic obligation to alleviate symptomatic distress. In fact, Connors shows, active techniques of symptom management are frequently facilitative of treatment goals formulated in terms of relational psychoanalysis, self psychology, intersubjectivity theory, and attachment research. A discerning effort to enrich psychodynamic treatment without subverting its conceptual ground, Symptom-Focused Dynamic Psychotherapy is a bracing antidote to the timeworn mindset that makes a virtue of symptomatic suffering. More

The Fantasy Principle: Psychoanalysis of the Imagination by Michael Adams (Brunner-Routledge) Contemporary psychoanalysis needs less reality and more fantasy. It needs a new principle - what Michael Vannoy Adams calls the "fantasy principle." More

Handbook Of Spirituality And Worldview In Clinical Practice by Allan M. Josephson, John R. Peteet (American Psychiatric Association) Unlike works that focus primarily on spiritual experience, this clearly written volume focuses on worldview - the cognitive aspects of belief - and how it affects the behavior of both patient and clinician. Also unlike other works, this remarkable volume summarizes assessment, formulation, and treatment principles, using powerful case vignettes to illustrate how these principles can be applied to any individual of any faith or "non-faith," including practical clinical information on major faith traditions and on the secular (i.e., atheist/agnostic) worldview. This refreshing text sheds much-needed light on an area too often obscure to many clinicians. Because it bridges several disciplines in a novel way, this thought-provoking volume will find a diverse audience among mental health care students, educators, and professionals everywhere concerned with religious and spiritual aspects of their patients' lives. More

Adolescent Psychiatry: Developmental and Clinical Studies edited by Lois T. Flaherty (Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol 27: Analytic Press) Much of this volume of Adolescent Psychiatry focuses on trauma and violence. These are not new issues to psychiatrists, especially those who work with adolescents. Indeed, they are hardly new issues for the world. What is new is a growing awareness of the psychological, biological, and social impact of trauma on its victims, especially on the young. What awaits is the translation of this new knowledge into public policy, so that the effects of trauma can be mitigated and, ultimately, so that children and adolescents can be protected from harm. More

Fear and Anxiety: The Benefits of Translational Research by Jack M. Gorman (American Psychiatric Association) Animals, like people, experience fear and avoidance, which can be reliably observed, quantified, and manipulated in almost all species. Remarkably, as this volume demonstrates, the neural circuits re­sponsible for the acquisition and expression of fear are conserved throughout phylogeny from rodents through nonhuman primates to humans. Thus, what is discovered about the neuroanatomy and physiology of fear in a mouse can be usefully "translated" to a human with an anxiety disorder. More

Depressive Rumination: Nature, Theory and Treatment edited by Costas Papageorgiou, Adrian Wells (John Wiley & Sons) Depression is the most common psychological disorder incurring significant personal, social, and economic costs. Cognitive approaches have been highly influential in the conceptualization and treatment of depression. Several cognitive processes have been implicated in the development, maintenance, and recurrence/relapse of depression. In the past 15 years, persistent, recyclic, negative thinking, in the form of rumination, has attracted increasing theoretical and empirical attention as an important factor. More

Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy  edited by Len Sperry, Edward P. Shafranske (American Psychological Association) Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy is the first book to critically and coherently survey how spirituality can be incorporated into a range of psychotherapeutic approaches, including psychoanalytic, cognitive—behavioral, humanistic, interpersonal, transpersonal, and others. Volume editors Len Sperry and Edward P. Shafranske, both well recognized as outstanding scholars, bring together a stellar group of contributors to describe the theoretical and clinical basis for their approaches and to illustrate their clinical application. A uniform structure across chapters and an integrative final chapter allow for easy comparison of the approaches. The volume editors examine current and future issues as well as the legacy of the psychoanalytic and Jungian foundations of spiritually oriented psychotherapy. This volume demonstrates the utility and accessibility of examining the spiritual dimension in therapy. It is likely to become a vital resource for the experienced clinician and the standard text for graduate programs in clinical, counseling, and consulting psychology and clinical social work. More

Clinical Sport Psychology edited by Frank Gardner (Human Kinetics Publishers) provide readers with an assortment of tools to use in evaluating and working with athletes. The text addresses a range of athletes’ issues in an informed and integrated approach to sport psychology. Rather than focusing on one problem area, one modality of intervention, or one aspect of professional practice, Clinical Sport Psychology blends grounded theory and sound research with effective assessment and intervention practices, presenting empirically informed intervention guidelines specific to various needs of athletes. More

Human Development: A Life-Span View, 4th edition by Robert V. Kail, John C. Cavanaugh (Wadsworth) Fourth Edition provides students with balanced coverage of the entire life span. John C. Cavanaugh's extensive research in gerontology, combined with Robert V. Kail's expertise in childhood and adolescence, result in a textbook that presents complete and balanced coverage of all life stages. Utilizing a modified chronological approach, the authors trace development from conception through late life in sequential order, while also dedicating several chapters to important topical issues pertaining to particular points in the life span. This Fourth Edition includes unparalleled technology integration to help students better understand and remember the enormous amount of information covered in this course. More

Child And Adolescent Psychiatry edited by Sandra Sexson (Blackwell's Neurology and Psychiatry Access Series: Blackwell Publishing Professional) Traditional textbooks convey knowledge. It is the goal of this text in the Blackwell's Neurology and Psychiatry Access Series to convey not only essential knowledge but also the collected wisdom of its many highly regarded contributors. To achieve the goal of conveying not only knowledge but also wisdom, each book in this series is built on a structural framework that was well received by critics and readers alike in David: Pediatric Neurology for the Clinician and the first editions of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Adult Neurology, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Adult Psychiatry (Mosby). More

Issues in Aging by Mark Novak (Allyn & Bacon) presents facts and information about aging today. It covers the issues that most older people and their families will face, and it deals with issues that an aging society will raise for all of us. Whether you are older yourself, have older parents, relatives and friends, or plan to work with older people, the information in this text will help you understand again today. This book first looks first at large-scale social issues — social attitudes, the study of aging, and demographic issues. It then shows how these conditions affect individuals and social institutions. The book concludes with a look at political responses to aging and how individuals can create a better old age for themselves and the people they know. More

Hating in the First Person Plural: Psychoanalytic Essays on Racism, Homophobia, Misogyny, and Terror by Donald Moss (Other Press) In introducing this collection of 13 recently published essays, Moss argues that psychoanalytic thinking can help us understand such forms of hatred as terrorism. E.g., one contributor probes how dis-identification with the other blocks comprehension of such acts as the September 11, 2001 attacks. Others analyze actual or literary case studies. More

Situational Judgment Tests: Theory, Measurement, and Application edited by Jeff Weekley and Robert Ployhart (SIOP Organizational Frontiers Series: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) advances the science and practice of SJTs by promoting a theoretical framework, providing an understanding of best practices, and establishing a research agenda for years to come. Currently, there is no other source that provides such a comprehensive treatment of situational judgment testing.  More

Cultural Competence In Clinical Psychiatry by Wen-Shing Tseng (American Psychiatric Association) Building on their previous works in clinical areas and in psychotherapy, the editors here take ari entirely new approach to cultural competency. Instead of examining populations of different ethnic groups, this illuminating volume examines cultural issues as applied to virtually every psychiatric service (e.g., inpatient, outpatient, consultation-liaison, pain management, and emergency) and specialty (e.g., child and adolescent, geriatric, addiction, and forensic psychiatry) and to both psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. Distinguished contributors bring the issues to life with numerous case vignettes in all chapters. More

Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology by S Alexander Haslam, Craig McGarty (Sage Publications)The revised edition of a text formerly known as Doing Psychology takes the approach that students who understand the logic of research will be able to see more clearly exactly what they need statistics for, and will then be motivated to understand more clearly what statistics can do for them, as well as what they cannot do. New chapters provide an introduction to analysis of variance, chi-square and distribution-free procedures, qualitative measures, and the writing of research reports. More

Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods, Fourth Research Edition by Mark R. Leary (Pearson Allyn & Bacon) shows students how to conceptualize questions, measure variables, design studies, and analyze data. More

Clinical Values: Emotions That Guide Psychoanalytic Treatment by Sandra Buechler (Psychoanalysis in a New Key: Analytic Press) In this refreshingly honest and open book, Sandra Buechler looks at therapeutic process issues from the standpoint of the human qualities and human resourcefulness that the therapist brings to each clinical encounter. Her concern is with the clinical values that shape the psychoanalytically oriented treatment experience. How, she asks, can one person evoke a range of values -- curiosity, hope, kindness, courage, sense of purpose, emotional balance, the ability to bear loss, and integrity - in another person and thereby promote psychological change? For Buechler, these core values, and the emotions that infuse them, are at the heart of the clinical process. They permeate the texture and tone, and shape the content, of what therapists say. They provide the framework for formulating and working toward treatment goals. And they keep the therapist emotionally alive in the face of the often draining vicissitudes of the treatment process. Clinical Values: Emotions That Guide Psychoanalytic Treatment is addressed to therapists young and old. By focusing successively on different emotion-laden values, Buechler shows how one value or another can center the therapist within the session. Taken together, these values function as a clinical compass that provides the therapist with a sense of direction and militates against the all too frequent sense of "flying by the seat of one's pants." Buechler makes clear that the values that guide treatment derive from the full range of the clinician's human experiences, and she is admirably candid in relating the personal experiences - from inside and outside the consulting room - that inform her own matrix of clinical values and her own clinical approach. A compelling record of one gifted therapist's pathway to clinical maturity, Clinical Values has a more general import: It exemplifies the variegated ways emotion informs effective psychodynamic process. More

Secrets of the Soul: A Social and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis by Eli Zaretsky (Alfred A. Knopf) Freud and his followers dominated American psychiatry after World War II. By the 1970s, they fell out of fashion. What happened? How could a man whose writings and personal magnetism "permanently transformed the ways in which ordinary men and women throughout the world understand themselves" have left behind "a pseudoscience whose survival is now very much in doubt?" More

Ecrits: A Selection by Jacques Lacan, translated by Bruce Fink (W.W. Norton & Company) The experience of reading Lacan can be difficult for some, if not most of us; his work requires us to be active in our comprehension and imagination. For many years there has only been one translation of this important work, which has hampered Lacan's introduction to the Anglophone world. We now have a new translation and splendid it is! It does not give instant access to Lacan and the book still needs "active" reading, but it certainly helps. This modern translation - worked on by three people close to the work of Lacan - is fully annotated and referenced to give the reader a complete entry into the work as composed at the time (a hermeneutics of Lacan, perhaps?). We have many books about the work of this important psychoanalyst and thinker - but eventually the desire comes to read his original work and this translation certainly allows, supports and encourages this. This translation of the Ecrits will prove valuable for many years to come. More

Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development edited by Gavin Bremner, Alan Fogel (Blackwell Handbooks of Developmental Psychology: Blackwell Publishers) (Hardcover) This up-to-date overview of the fast-moving field of infant development covers all the major areas of interest in terms of research, applications and policy. Each of the 26 chapters is written by a leading international researcher and offers a current review of the theory and research findings in his or her particular area of expertise.
The volume is divided into four sections on perception and cognition; social, emotional and communicative development; risk factors in development; and contexts and policy issues. Integration and coherence across the Handbook are provided by editorial commentaries prefacing each section. More

Minding Spirituality by Randall Lehmann Sorenson (Analytic Press) Learned and chatty Sorenson considers the ambivalent roles the various psychoanalyses play in regards self-knowledge and that peculiar longing for authentic living usually named “spirituality” when one does not too much want to be bothered with the accumulated bric-a-brac more usually identified as religion. The well-asserted atheism of founder Freud has in the last century warped into more accommodating views of religion and the problematic family resemblance of psychoanalysis to religion. Sorenson’s exploration of this complex should be refreshing to therapists and offers a workable accommodation for patient and doctor.   In Minding Spirituality, Randall Sorenson, a clinical psychoanalyst, invites us to take an interest in our patients’ spirituality that is "respectful but not diffident, curious but not reductionistic, welcoming but not indoctrinating." Out of this invitation emerges a fascinating and broadening investigation of how contemporary psychoanalysis can "mind" spirituality in the threefold sense of being bothered by it, of attending to it, and of cultivating it.  More

Trance and Treatment: Clinical Uses of Hypnosis 2nd Edition by Herbert, Md. Spiegel, David Spiegel (American Psychiatric Association) The structure of the book parallels the sequence of treatment in an encounter with a patient. In the first section, the phenomenon of hypnosis is defined and discussed in some detail. Then, the method for administering and scoring the HIP, a 5- to 10-minute clinical assessment procedure, is presented. This procedure is crucial in our evaluation of a patient for treatment. More

Introduction to Clinical Psychology (6th Edition) by Michael T. Nietzel, Douglas A. Bernstein, Richard Milich, Geoff Kramer (Prentice Hall) In the five previous editions of this book, we tried to accomplish three goals. First, we wanted a book that, while appropriate for graduate students, was written especially with sophisticated undergraduates in mind. Many undergraduate psychology majors express an interest in clinical psychology without having a clear understanding of what the field involves and requires. An even larger number of nonmajors also wish to know more about clinical psychology. We felt that both groups of undergraduates would benefit from a thorough survey of the field which does not go into all the details typically found in "graduate study only" texts. More

Somatoform Dissociation: Phenomena, Measurement, and Theoretical Issues by Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis (W. W. Norton & Company) The first comprehensive theory of somatoform dissociation. Expanding the definition of dissociation in psychiatry, Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis presents a summary of the somatoform components of dissociation—how sensory and motor functions are affected by dissociative disorders. Founded in the current view of mind-body integration, this book is essential reading for all mental health professionals engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of dissociative disorders, PTSD, and other trauma-related psychiatric disorders. More

Free Will, Consciousness and Self: Anthropological Perspectives on Psychology by Preben Bertelsen (Studies in the Understanding of the Human Condition: Berghahn Books) What is it to be human? How do we relate to the world, to each other and to our selves—in everyday life and when faced with life's big questions?
In this book, the author develops a general theoretical model that may offer a better understanding of underlying principles of human behavior. The author shows that general psychology can make a significant contribution to a general anthropology and the human condition. More

The Nature of Intellectual Styles by Li-Fang Zhang, Robert J. Sternberg (Educational Psychology: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) provides an up-to-date, panoramic picture of the field of intellectual styles through describing, analyzing, and integrating the major theoretical and research works on the topic. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the field—its nature, origins, historical development, theories, research, and applications, as well as the interrelationships among major theoretical constructs proposed by different theorists in the past few decades. In particular, three major controversial issues in the field are addressed by both empirical findings and literature review: styles as better versus worse, or as equal in merit; styles as traits versus styles as states; and styles as different constructs versus styles as similar constructs with different style labels.  More

Developmental Psychopathology, 2nd Edition, Three Volume Set edited by Dante Cicchetti, Donald J. Cohen (Wiley) (available individually: Volume 1: Developmental Psychopathology, Theory and Method; Volume 2: Developmental Psychopathology, Developmental Neuroscience; Volume 3: Developmental Psychopathology, Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation) contains in three volumes the most complete and current research on every aspect of developmental psychopathology. This seminal reference work features contributions from international expert researchers and clinicians who bring together an array of interdisciplinary work to ascertain how multiple levels of analysis may influence individual differences, the continuity or discontinuity of patterns and the pathways by which the same developmental outcomes may be achieved.

The first edition has proven to be a venerable reference work; the second edition has been extended by one whole volume.  Homage to the development of brain imaging technologies and interpretation which is currently revolutionizing how we think about the brain and mental illnesses.  The various articles detailed below are in depth surveys of developmental psychopathology in its various guises.  The authors keep a well-balanced view between theoretical research and possible clinical applications so that students, clinicians and researchers will all find these essays representing the best consensual view of the field at this time.  No doubt the price of these volumes will confine their use to the library more than to the classroom.  Highly recommended for university libraries and research institutions. More

Gaining Access: A Practical and Theoretical Guide for Qualitative Researchers by Martha S. Feldman, Jeannine Bell, Michele Berger (Alta Mira Press) Problems of gaining access often come as a rude surprise to the researcher who has developed a research design and is eager to get down to the im­portant task of finding some answers. Access can seem like an obstacle only tangentially related to the actual research. Yet access is a critical part of doing re­search, not only because one must "get in" in order to gain information but also because the process of "getting in" affects what information is available to the re­searcher.' In this volume, we suggest thinking about access as a relational process and present access vignettes that illustrate the process.

This book both fills a theoretical void and brings together in a single work a di­verse collection of access stories. We present a general theory of access that recog­nizes it as a process of building relationships. This process requires researchers to identify those who can help them gain access, to learn the art of self-presentation, and to nurture relationships once they are established. As part of this ongoing process, researchers must also deal with both rejections and the end of relationships. In sum, we utilize a relational perspective in understanding the fundamental nature of access.

Our vignettes show that being allowed to hang out in a particular setting to observe or being allowed to interview informants is just the first step of gaining access. Access, from our perspective, requires being in a position to learn from the people you are talking with and observing. From this perspective, access is not something that is gained once and for all but a process that can be developed and enriched over time. In part I, we discuss this process by breaking it down into sev­eral stages. In part II, we present a variety of access stories that illustrate this process. They specifically address not only how the researcher gained initial ac­cess but also how he or she built rapport with respondents. They also address the seldom-discussed issue of one's exit.

Whit his been written about gaining access often likens the process to opening a door.' This image of access suggests that a door exists, that it is always in the same place, that the researcher can find it, and that access involves having the right key or the right combination that enables one to open the door. The door image is supported by the use of the term "entry" for access. Thinking about access in this way places a lot of emphasis on the actions of the researcher, including planning, developing skills, and selecting one's site well. All of these ire clearly important, but they ire not sufficient to understand the process of access.

Our experiences with access suggest that the door image is too simple. A sec­ond, more complex image starts with a long hallway with a multitude of doors. Some of the doors ire open; some ire dosed. Some of the closed doors open pe­riodically in response to a variety of different actions; others will only open if you say or do the right things. Some of the doors lead to rich environments where there is much to be learned; other doors lead to vast empty rooms that contain lit­tle of interest to the researcher. Some of the doors may open but lead to spices behind the doors that do not provide further access. Doors that open sometimes close, occasionally for no discernible reason. Conversely, a door that was closed may open just enough to allow one to get one's foot inside. Not ill doors ire com­pletely open or shut. There is a range of in-between.

The image of the door is insufficient in another way: It fails to acknowledge that there ire people on the other side of doors permitting access. These doors do not just open or close of their own volition but must be opened by people. More­over, the act of entering the door is hardly the end but just the beginning of ac­cess. Both our contributors and other scholars describe access is a process that has many aspects or stages rather thin a single act 7 Gaining access is not simply a mat­ter of banging on a door and getting it to open. "[A]ccess like research itself is a dynamic process."' One researcher describes access as a series of antechambers, multiple thresholds in which there is no "inside" in which researchers can safely

reside.' "Seeking access continues, throughout the whole study.... [T]here is no such felicitous moment when the study can continue without hindrance."

To gain initial access, one must attract enough attention so that someone on the inside will look out the door and see who or what is there. It also requires that the researcher convince the person or people on the other side of the door to open it wide enough to explain why he or she wants in. The researcher must be invited in and be allowed to stay for a while. Leaving and returning are also parts to this process. Throughout this entire process, to be successful we must build relation­ships with people." Gaining access is thus a relational process.

Part I of the book develops an understanding of the process of access as relational and continuous, while part II illustrates it through the stories of researchers gain­ing access in various settings.

In part I, we provide an overview of the access process. We divide this part into five chapters that correspond to stages of access. Chapter I examines the process of finding the people with whom you want to have a relationship. One could think of this stage as the attraction. Here we focus on the preparation for seeking access, the ways in which the researcher chooses to represent his or her research and the contacts and resources that are useful at this early stage. Chapter 2 explores seeking permission for the relationship. Here we review the process of gaining approval, including institutional review board approval, to conduct research at a particular site. Chapter 3 is about making initial contact. In friendships, the analogous stage is asking to go out for coffee. Conversely, in love relationships this stage corresponds to asking for a date. Here we dis­cuss the ways the researcher used the preparation that he or she did in the first stage to secure initial access to people or the organization(s) they wish to study. Developing rapport, or building the relationship, is the subject of chapter 4. Here we describe how a researcher might build the kind of relationship neces­sary for access to the information the researcher desires. Chapter 5 describes the process of exit or, to use a relational metaphor, changing the terms of a friendship or ending a love relationship. This last chapter in part I provides a discussion of some of the difficulties and issues surrounding one's exit from the research site.

At the end of the chapters in part I, we have included some helpful guidelines that are culled from various researchers' stories. The authors' names (in parenthet­ical comments at the end of each story allow the reader to reference the story from which the tip was culled, later in the book.

In part II, we provide access stories from a variety of different research perspec­tives. We follow a tradition in fieldwork that gaining access is an individual pur­suit that is different for every field site and every researcher. Thus, this book does not provide a blueprint for gaining access to any particular setting. Instead, we supply many ideas and strategies that others have used. We have done three things to simplify the task. First, we have provided numerous access stories in one place. Second, we have provided a theoretical framework based on viewing access as a relationship that helps make sense of things that take place during the research process. The two fit together. The stories provide more than the customary story about "getting in" or initial access. Third, we have provided pointers to other ac­cess stories and literature about access.

To obtain information about the process of gaining access, we have solicited reports from a diverse set of researchers who have engaged in a broad range of re­search projects involving fieldwork. Experienced researchers and as well as those conducting their first study will find value in these access stories. Both veteran re­searchers and graduate students have written vignettes for this book. Most of the access vignettes describe the researchers' first research projects in which they were responsible for gaining access. For many, these are their dissertation projects. Even some of the experienced researchers have chosen to write about their first access experiences. The first access experience is not always the smoothest, but it is one in which the researcher is very reflective. Few things are taken for granted. The re­searcher remembers each torturous step. Four of the researchers report on research they undertook in later stages of their careers.

Our contributors are men and women who come from several different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Their disciplinary backgrounds include training in archi­tecture, business, education, law, natural resources, political science, public policy, psychology, and social work. At least nine of the contributors had spent several years in other careers. Before conducting their research, they worked in teaching, law, ar­chitecture, consulting, programming, and planning. Thus, our contributors are di­verse in many ways. This is particularly useful for understanding the relationship between identity and access. The effect of any particular identity may vary in dif­ferent contexts. Seeing how the various identities represented by these people affect the information they are able to obtain in the research setting can help readers think about how their own identities may influence their research experience. 

Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politcs by Abraham Drassinower (Rowman & Littlefield) 'T' his book is a dialogue with Freud about unhappiness-and about whether a tragic sense of life must of necessity ally itself with the ac­tual rather than the possible, with things as they are rather than with things as they can be. Drassinower argues that Freud's theory of culture positions itself between the demands for action and the claims of a truly human wisdom. It lays bare the dynamics whereby, in refusing the ontological predicaments of loss and death, we deliver ourselves over to the ravages of a history both distant from life and intent upon destroying it.

Drassinower’s central claim is that what is generally (mis)taken as Freud's pes­simism is, on the contrary, the very standpoint from which he envisions an alternative to the cultural 'malaise' he describes. Freud's theory of cul­ture is a deeply critical theory about how human beings fall short of who they can be by refusing to be the mortal beings that they are. To mistake Freud's attentiveness to loss and death is therefore to forgo the opportu­nity to develop a language of critique that, neither optimistic nor pes­simistic, opposes to things as they are the lessons, in Northrop Frye's phrase, of an "educated imagination." It is this opportunity that brought to the for in this political theory.

The first chapter presents an exegesis of Freud's 1915 text, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death." Freud's reflection, as Peter Gay has it, is "an elegy for a civilization destroying itself." Drassinower sees it as an untimely meditation-a wistful warning seeking to enjoin a culture bent upon destructiveness to learn to relate to death in some way other than that of war. Freud's is a proposal of a new attitude to death. His text indicts a culture whose denial of death betrays its inability to deal adequately with the predicament of loss. In so doing, it intimates the possibility of a different culture that, in learning to encounter rather than deny death, con­cretizes the possibility not of happiness, but of a life worth living.

In chapter 2, Drassinower locates Freud's theory of culture in the Western tradition of political philosophy by way of comparisons with Hobbes and Hegel. Freud's claim that "whatever fosters the growth of civilization works at the same time against war" has given rise to an unfortunate im­pression of the Hobbesian roots of his conception. In order to undo this impression, Drassinower argues that Freud's deployment of the problem of death in terms of fear and loss is, despite some superficial similarities, markedly distinct from Hobbes's deployment of that same problem exclusively in terms of fear. Central to Drassinower’s argument is the observation that Freud and Hobbes maintained substantively different views of human nature. For Freud, the sphere of culture is not solely negative or restrictive in the sense of providing necessary prohibitions and protections; it is simulta­neously positive or developmental in the sense of being the field in and through which human beings develop as cultural beings. The infant's fearful and painful encounter with the reality of the other is simultane­ously a humanizing encounter.

At the same time, however, the unveiling of the positive or develop­mental dimension of Freud's theory of culture necessitates a comparison with Hegel, so as to explore the ways in which the thrust of Freud's move­ment beyond Hobbes stops short of a Hegelian conception of community. Freud's theory of culture specifies a domain both between and beyond the centrifugal forces evidenced in Hobbes's instrumental collection of preconstituted atoms, on the one hand, and the centripetal forces evidenced in Hegel's all-encompassing totality that both transcends and thoroughly comprehends the moments in and through which it finds its concreteness, on the other. The second chapter is thus an interpretation of Freud's apho­ristic statement that culture is a struggle between Eros and Death. If the unifying powers of Eros intimate a critique of Hobbes, the divisive pow­ers of Death intimate a critique of Hegel.

The third chapter, structurally and thematically the central chapter, is also the most ambitious and most problematic. It attempts to formulate a fundamental continuity between the 'clinical' and 'cultural' dimensions of Freud's work. Clinically, psychoanalysis originates in Freud's con­frontation with the shortcomings of hypnosis as a therapeutic tool. The discovery of the eminently psychoanalytic fields of 'transference' and 're­sistance' takes place in the context of Freud's investigation of the repeated failures of hypnosis in the treatment of neurosis. It is in and through these discoveries that Freud comes to see the dynamics of cure neither as obe­dience to hypnotic suggestions, nor as exclusively cathartic relief, but rather as a laborious, interpretative reconstruction of the hidden, yet still operative meanings of the past.

The mode of action Freud named 'psychoanalysis' thus appears on the scene as an effort to transvaluate the power of the past over the pres­ent and the future- At the heart of the operative power of the past and of

the hypnotist's attempted deployment of that power, Freud discerns the human infant's ill-fated wish to refuse the painfulness of loss. For Freud, the correlate of the infant's helplessness is the at once fearful and pro­tective omnipotence of parental figures. The infant's desire is, as it were, fated to be duped into an enmeshment with authority. The power of the past is the persistent power both of the infant's desire and of the au­thoritative figures who have come to represent its satisfaction. As against this, the work of psychoanalysis is essentially a work of mourn­ing: it seeks to facilitate a protracted detachment from the figures that, for the subject, have come to represent the alleviation of its helplessness and have thus come to inherit the power of its wish to foreclose loss.

Thus whereas hypnotic suggestion seeks to redeploy that power in the service of a normalizing obedience, psychoanalysis aims at its dissolution. Freud defines the goal of psychoanalysis as the resolution of transference because such resolution has as its horizon the subject's detachment from its wish to foreclose loss, from its love of immortality. This detachment is inextricably mournful in that it presupposes the subject's encounter not only with loss but also with its own death. For Freud, the practice of psychoanalysis is a specific mode of labor in and through which the human subject attempts to rupture illusions that, in foreclosing its intuition of its own death, preclude its own accession into the field of temporality, into the world where things pass away. It seeks a sensibility able to live its past not repetitively but as an ever-renewed longing to reach the elusive contemporaneity of the present-and to seize thereby the possibility of a no longer repetitive future. For Freud, the mournful emergence of death spells, asymptotically, the death of the power of the past.

This understanding of the work of psychoanalysis reveals the continuity between Freud's abandonment of hypnosis, on the one hand, and the cri­tique of authority that lies at the heart of his theory of culture, on the other. In Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, Freud reopens the problematics of hypnosis in the context of an examination of the dynamics of soci­ety. Like that of the hypnotist, the power of society is ultimately rooted in the convergence of the human infant's wish to foreclose loss and the per­sistent power of parental figures in the life of the adult. Freud derives the power of the social from the prematurity of the human infant.

The thrust of this analysis is deepened in Civilization and Its Discontents. The infant's biologically determined prematurity fates it to a long period of helplessness and dependence, the crucial memorial to which is what Freud called the "superego." The process of acculturation, at once resented and desired, amounts to a gradual yet forceful sedimentation of authoritative figures in the growing infant's psyche, a protracted incarna­tion of obedience at the heart of the mature individual. As the advocate of an omnipotent perfection, the superego bonds us to the love of an ideal to which we are helplessly inferior." The intolerable discontents of culture

thus dramatize, in the concreteness of everyday life, the predicament of an obedient subject that cannot help but judge itself as unworthy of living from the point of view of an illusory life from which the realities of loss and death have been foreclosed. The clinical onset of psychoanalysis as a critique of that foreclosure informs and prefigures Freud's subsequent cri­tique of a culture whose palliatives complicate the suffering they claim to alleviate.

In The Future of an Illusion, Freud both broaches the explicitly political di­mension of his theory of culture and proposes the waning of religion in the modern world as an opportunity to deploy a far-reaching pedagogical ef­fort of cultural transformation, an "irreligious education." On the one hand, he exposes the juncture between the denial of death and authority, illusion and domination, that he discerns at the heart of all "present day cultures." On the other, he claims that, when conceived as an opportu­nity, the death of God might issue not in a nihilistic collapse of cultural life per se, but in a renewed encounter with the perennial painfulness of loss and death. The Future of an Illusion amounts to a diagnosis of a particular historical situation in terms of which Freud ventures to posit the task of psychoanalysis. This task is the formulation of the principles of an alter­native mode of acculturation, of pedagogical practices that, informed by the psychoanalytic unveiling of the psychical specificity of the human in­fant, would seek to facilitate, rather than preclude, the developmental work of mourning. The fourth chapter of this book explores Freud's re­markable audacity: his hope to have unveiled an opportunity wherein his own abandonment of hypnosis emerges, pedagogically, as a concrete his­torical possibility for Western culture as a whole.

Civilization and Its Discontents culminates with a question, a "fateful question," Freud tells us, about whether and to what extent we might manage to master the disturbance of our communal life by "the human instinct of aggression and self-destruction.” Freud's understanding of the deeply cultural task this question leaves us with is inextricably con­nected to his grasp of the relation between generations as central to the production and reproduction of cultural forms. For Freud, cultural forms sustain themselves not magically, as it were, but in and through concrete pedagogical practices-"upbringing" in the widest sense-that give par­ticular content to the recalcitrant yet historically shifting relations be­tween generations. The question Freud raises as he concludes Civilization and Its Discontents is about the degree to which we might self-consciously intervene in this dimension of the historical process.

The central problem Freud identifies in that regard is that adults cannot properly educate children because, as their 'infantile amnesia' evidences, they no longer understand their own childhood. The unprecedented con­tribution of psychoanalysis to the life of culture is to have minimized our estrangement from childhood. On a distinctively cultural plane, the essence of psychoanalysis is to have raised a most difficult question, in Freud's phrase, about the "upbringing of the next generation." For Freud, the heart of this upbringing is an effort to carefully guide the pre­maturely born-and therefore helpless and dependent human infant­through the experiences of loss it is destined to encounter.

In chapter 5, Drassinower examines this exceedingly problematic aspect of Freud's theory of culture. By daring to imagine the application of the practice he founded to the terrain of cultural life, Freud self-consciously wrestled, in his own terms, with problems as familiar and intractable as those perti­nent to the complex entanglements of politics and pedagogy, power and knowledge, 'city' and 'soul'. Freud's theory of culture thus culminates not in pessimistic resignation but in a richly textured pedagogical reflection. His lifelong attentiveness to the ravages of Death is rooted in an insistent effort to assess, assist, and intimate the precarious chances of Eros. Freud's is a peculiar generosity, distinguished, as Richard Wollheim puts it, by a "refusal to believe that it is in any way the mark of a good or gen­erous mind to give way to hope."

Wollheim is not altogether mistaken in his frankly polemical observa­tion that "[t]o try to find in Freud's writings an articulated or coherent so­cial theory or ethic, an enterprise to which some of the most speculative minds of our day have committed themselves, is a vain task. For Freud had no such theory and no such ethic: as he himself was able to recog-nize." Freud's hostility to the passion for salvation, a passion never re­moved from sustained thought about political matters, is unparalleled. His work traverses a paradoxical terrain in which human beings mutilate both themselves and each other in the process of their very growth and development-an uncertain and precarious terrain in which danger and opportunity, mystification and liberation, pain and pleasure constantly in­tersect and intertwine in the midst of a never-ending struggle.

Yet by the same token, if it is correct to say, with Wollheim, that "[n]o greater disservice can be done to Freud than by those who, in the interest of this or that piety, recruit him to the kind of bland or mindless optimism that he so utterly and so heroically despised," it is equally correct to say that no greater disservice can be done to Freud than by those who, in the interest of this or that so-called realism, recruit him to the kind of lifeless pessimism against which his very life and thought were a perennial protest. Freud's thought points toward not apathetic withdrawal but, as Wollheim puts it, "justifiable grounds for action." Precisely as ultimately pedagogical con­cerns about the cultivation of character, Freud's tempered "hopes for the fu-ture" have a prima facie claim to be regarded as genuinely political in the deepest sense. They are claims about the presuppositions of a politics no longer as intruded upon by the twin passions for salvation and withdrawal.

The fundamental question to be posed is not whether Freud was a quin­tessentially political thinker in the purest sense. It is rather whether polit­ical philosophy can learn from Freud's uncompromising lessons. The dis­concerting challenge he posed in this regard is entailed in his unique understanding of and insistence upon the underestimated and extraordi­nary weight of childhood experience. Drassinower’s central objective is to facilitate the meaningful emergence of that challenge. We might say that it is a chal­lenge that, perhaps all too hopefully and all too humanly, provokes thoughts about a politics whose tragic sense of life permits it to lengthen creatively, rather than shorten artificially, what Freud called our "circuitous paths to death." 

Wilkie Collins: Man of Mystery and Imagination by Alexander, Md. Grinstein (International Universities Press)  Wilkie Collins (1824-1889) is mostly remembered for two classic novels: The Woman in White (1859-1860) and The Moonstone (1867-1868). A prolific writer, he wrote more than twenty nov­els, a great many short stories, a number of plays, as well as numerous essays on then current topics. His books were praised by many of the famous writers of his day, including his fellow novelist Dickens.

At the height of his popularity, Collins's reputation as an author was such that people stood in line at the publisher's awaiting the next installment of his serialized works. Yet his literary critics were outraged by his scandalous revelations of British society as well as what they viewed as his expressive references to sexuality and the shockingly immoral or unethical behavior of his characters. They firmly believed that Collins's writings did not elevate people's morality, and thought that only the "backroom" populace would find them interesting.

As time went on his major novels continued to be re­printed, but Collins's popularity and literary reputation dwin­dled. Whether this was because the reading public became less interested in sensational novels and turned to other types of literature, or whether it was because of the diminished quality of his writing, is hard to say. In recent years, however, there has been a renewed interest in his works. A number of his novels and collections of his shorter works have already been reissued, and additional titles are being published regularly.

Largely because of his popularity as a writer and his work as a playwright, early biographers of Wilkie Collins endeavored to present factual material about him. So little was available about his personal life that he remained pretty much a man of mystery. In recent years more information about his private life has come to light with the publication of the works by William M. Clarke (1988) and Catherine Peters (1989, 1991). We are indebted to them for presenting a more definitive pic­ture of Collins's personality and works than had previously been available.

My interest in the preparation of this work has not been to write another biography about Wilkie Collins, nor to explain his art or to orient my discussion along the lines of literary criticism, as others have done so thoroughly and so well. Rather, as in some of my previous efforts with other creative individuals, my goal has been to provide some added insight into this man's personality and into some of the underlying problems with which he struggled.

I recognized at the very outset that to accomplish this task I was immediately confronted with serious obstacles. No autobi­ography or diaries exist nor are there any notes about his per­sonal life. Collins took great pains to destroy much personal material, and Dickens and others who had letters of a personal nature similarly destroyed whatever correspondence was "too revealing." Despite such a major dearth of important primary source material, this task did not prove as daunting as it origi­nally appeared. Of the letters that do exist, many have been published or are extant in various collections, and these have been carefully studied. A selected collection of his letters, ed­ited by Professor William Baker and William Clarke was pub­lished in 1999.

In a letter to author Henry James Nicoll, dated November 28, 1881, Collins wrote: "In one word, the best part of my life is in my books". In The Moonstone (1867-1868), for example, Collins, in the words of Gabriel Betteredge, wrote: "I wonder whether the gentlemen who make a business and a living out of writing books, ever find their own selves getting in the way of their subjects, like me? If they do, I can feel for them" (p. 24).

In another connection Collins (1888) wrote something which was applicable to himself in "Reminiscences of a Story Teller": "Sometimes [the author's works] bear witness uncon­sciously to the extraordinary coincidences which so often pres­ent themselves in real life. Sometimes they write autobiography without knowing it, and present their own characters to a stranger as if they were writing to their oldest and dearest friend.” It is highly likely then, that within Collins's fictitious works certain personal revelations slipped out, sometimes more than he himself may have realized. I recognize, of course, that con­clusions derived from such "revelations" present potential sources of error and are in danger of being considered specula­tive. As my orientation is primarily that of a clinician, I am fully aware that the application of a clinical orientation to the study of any individual whom we do not know, let alone someone who has been dead for over a century, is extremely hazardous. Our subject is neither a patient in treatment, nor can he con­firm or contradict our constructions.

It may be said that in a study such as this, which relies on a writer's works of fiction deriving from many different sources and disclosing many aspects of human dynamics, that not all the data may be pertinent to the particular writer. I would fundamentally agree. Yet, I do believe that the repetition of various themes in an author's writings over a lifetime does help us understand him better because it strongly suggests that their persistence derived from his own psychodynamics and inner need to overcome or to master their effect upon him. It is my contention that in his efforts to surmount his inner problems, Wilkie Collins revealed a great deal about himself in his fiction. We turn to this material, added to what we have learned from his scholarly biographers, to understand this man of mystery and imagination. 

The Internal World and Attachment by Geoff Goodman (Analytic Press) Today no thoughtful clinician denies the importance of attachment motivation and attachment patterns throughout the life cycle, and no serious theorist omits attachment from the catalogue of clinically important motivations. Yet, clinicians facing the multiplicity of wishes, fantasies, and conflicts reported by their patients typically find a guiding focus on attachment security inadequate to the complexities of therapeutic work. How, asks Geoff Goodman in The Internal World and Attachment, can we progress further in inte­grating the fruits of attachment research with the accumulated clinical wisdom of psychoanalytic theorizing about the internal world of object representations? The key, he answers, is to look more closely at the basic assumptions of each body of theory, especially those assumptions, whether embedded or explicit, that bear on the formation of psychic structure. 

Taking his cue from the contributions of Kernberg, Fonagy, Lieberman, Silverman, and others, Goodman argues that contemporary object relations theory, with its emphasis on object representations organized within a psychic structure, can be profitably integrated with attachment theory's Internal Working Models, with their emphasis on external reality and defensive exclu­sion. Drawing on Kernberg's insights into the affective and instinctual substrata of psychic organizations, Goodman proposes that insecure attachment categories can be correlated with particular constellations of self and object representations. Such convergences provide a springboard to further theoretical explorations, most especially to the relations between attachment and adult sexual behavior. Indeed, one outstanding feature of Goodman's proposals is the light they cast on various forms and meanings of sexual psychopathology, as he delineates how both promiscuity and retreats from sexual intimacy can be differentially interpreted depending on the patient's pattern of attachment.

Destined to provoke lively debate, The Internal World and Attachment is a powerfully informative attempt to go beyond the researcher's view of attachment as a motivational system oriented principally to cues in the external world. For Goodman, attachment is informed by an internal logic that reflects fantasy and defense, and an appreciation of the interaction of attachment pattern with various constellations of self and object representations can deepen our under­standing of the internal world in clinically consequen­tial ways. Vividly reported case material drawn from work with adults, children, and mother-child pairs demonstrates Goodman's claims and underscores the clinically grounded nature of his integrative project. Keeping his eye resolutely on the clinical texture of attachment observations and the clinical phenomenol­ogy expressive of internal object relations, Goodman provides the reader with an experience-near basis for viewing two influential bodies of knowledge as complementary avenues for apprehending the internal meaning of externally observable behavior. 

Integrating Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy: Dissolving the Mind-Brain Barrier by Bernard D. Beitman, Barton J. Blinder, Michael E. Thase, Debra L. Safer (Norton)

The mind-brain dichotomy has given way to the beginnings of integration. Treatment of mental illness in the twenty-first century requires "mind-brain" thinking. Psychotherapy influences brain function. Pharmacotherapy influences mind. The time has come in human evolution to recognize and understand the reciprocal relationship between mind and brain, to dissolve the conceptual mind-brain barrier. The increased use of pharmacologic and psy­chotherapeutic treatments is reflective of the recognition that the brain is the organ of the mind, just as the heart is central to circu­lation. The disorders treated by psychiatrists and other mental health clinicians are disorders of brain function and often require combined or integrated interventions.

For example, much evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy can influence cognitive functioning in depression (Murphy, Simons, Wetzel, & Lustman, 1984). Pharmacotherapy can control schizophrenic delusions and hallucinations and also increase patients' ability to plan ahead. Psychotherapy, in its turn, has been shown to affect brain function.

Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy can improve the lives of people with psychiatric disorders. The goal now is to maximize the clinical effects of chemical and psychotherapeutic treatments patients, medications provide the opportunity invetments. For some psychotherapy. For others, medications or           psychotherapy alone may be sufficient. Still others may be best served by alternating differ­ent treatments. Using both medications and psychotherapy in all patients may not necessarily be most cost-efficient or most effective.

Integrating pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy requires that clinicians attempt to conceptualize the relationship between mind and brain. A patient with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a dysfunctional hippocampus as a result of traumatic events. The brain circuits altered by pharmacotherapy may be sep­arate from those activated by psychotherapy. Or perhaps the two modalities may combine synergistically. In panic disorder involv­ing a possibly hypermetabolic amygdala, psychotherapy may influence prefrontal amygdala circuits, whereas selective serotinin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might "calm" the amygdala through serotonergic activity reaching up from the dorsal raphe nuclei. Medications may help control dysregulated affect, while psy­chotherapy helps to alter maladaptive interpersonal patterns. Clues are emerging that suggest a neurobiology of transference. Learning can alter the regulation of gene expression through the gene's ability to direct the production of certain proteins (gene transcriptional function). In the clinic, the potential for relating mind and brain may suddenly appear to those clinicians who are ready to see it. For example:

A 35-year-old single man has been treated with mood stabiliz­ers and antidepressants for mood variability. He wants to discon­tinue lamotrigine (Lamictal) and begin gabapentin (Neurontin). He is isolated, tends to drink excessively, and intermittently uses cocaine. He refuses to enter psychotherapy despite his ongoing obsessions about his mother, who committed suicide when he was a teenager. He only dimly acknowledges a potential connection between his mother's suicide and his fear of relationships. After beginning the gabapentin he reported odd experiences including seeing visual after-images. He wanted to know if the damage was permanent. His psychiatrist responded, "No, those side effects will go away. But the damage done to your brain by your mother's suicide will not go away unless you do something about it." The patient gradually got the message and sought psychotherapy. As psychotherapy helped him, his concerns about the pharmacological effects diminished.

Useful distinctions can be made among monotherapy, com­bined therapy, and integrated treatment. During the standard medication-management visit, the psychopharmacologist generally monitors symptoms and side effects. During a psychothera­peutically informed pharmacotherapy, the psychopharmacologist integrates pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy by addressing directly and indirectly the relationship between them while also inquiring about the patient's personal experiences. Some psychiatrists combine pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy by spending a specific time during the session on pharmacotherapy and the remainder on psychotherapy. Others integrate psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy by keeping in mind the potential reciprocal rela­tionship between the two treatments-pharmacotherapy can be considered another psychotherapeutic intervention. Under condi­tions of "split treatment"-pharmacotherapy by one person and psychotherapy by another-the triangle of two clinicians and a patient is generally combined rather than integrated. This book addresses the myriad of questions that arise from such treatments.

Part I provides an overview of these many issues through active involvement with specific problems and cases. The topics covered include: (1) research in combined treatments, (2) pharmacother­apy during psychotherapy, (3) psychotherapeutic aspects of psy­chotherapy, (4) the pharmacotherapy-psychotherapy triangle, (5) treatment algorithms for combined treatments, and (6) the neurobiology of psychotherapy.

This part of the book is formatted like Learning Psychotherapy, which includes six modules addressing verbal response modes and intentions, working alliance, inductive reasoning to define patterns, change, resistance, transference and countertransference. Two unpublished modules are available: Module 0, Basic Listening Skills, and Module 7, Termination. Learning Psychotherapy detailed an integrated model for learning psychotherapy, in which techniques among the major schools of psychotherapy are shared. The goals of that program were to teach fundamental skills and concepts that, if well learned, would lead to effective and time-efficient therapy. The foundation of that pro­gram, one shared by this book, is the basic ideas, strategies, and techniques common to all the psychotherapies. Integrating phar­macotherapy and psychotherapy requires a basic concept of psy­chotherapy; it is far too complicated to integrate pharmacotherapy with each of the schools of psychotherapy without first integrating the basics of psychotherapy.

Trainees studying Learning Psychotherapy learn to think about the basic skills of psychotherapy. Seminars are analogous to a psy­chotherapeutic relationship in that the seminar leader, rather than lecturing, facilitates personal growth in psychotherapeutic knowl­edge and self-understanding through fostering a group-process learning. Instead of passively reading and listening to lectures, trainees are asked to participate in the seminar and to complete homework assignments. This process extends to individual readers as well.

These "Missouri Modules" have been adopted as a basic approach to teaching psychotherapy in more than half the psychi­atric training programs in the United States. They have been trans­lated into Spanish and are being used in Canada and Australia. The format is adopted here with the individual reader as well as the seminar leader in mind, and this book may be used on its own or in conjunction with the programs detailed in Learning Psychotherapy. Sections are as interactive as possible, with instruc­tions for use both in a formal training setting and for individual readers. In addition, we have included responses from the University of Missouri psychiatric residents, where we have been testing this program. For teachers interested in using Part I as a part of a seminar series, we provide a brief outline of how to plan the series.

Part II contains detailed elaborations of the key topics of Part I. The first piece, "Conceptual and Empirical Basis for Integrating Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy," provides principles and research conclusions to guide clinical practice. Written by Michael Thase, the piece encourages the reader to look beyond easy con­clusions like "combined treatment is almost always better" to rec­ognize how difficult it is to draw apparently obvious conclusions. The second piece written by Michelle Riba with Richard Balon, reviews the remarkable complexity (including legal implications) of split treatment. The third piece, "Psychodynamic Neurobiology, written by Barton Blinder, provides many seeds for the growth of our understanding of the relationship between psychotherapy and the brain. Debra Safer contributed excellent editorial details and several useful cases.

The goals of this book are to help readers: (1) become familiar with the findings and limitations of the research literature on com­bined treatments, (2) learn how to use pharmacotherapy during psychotherapy, (3) learn how to use psychotherapy during phar­macotherapy, (4) learn the issues involved when a patient is treated by both a pharmacotherapist and a psychotherapist, (5) gain an increased understanding of the sequencing of pharma­cotherapy and psychotherapy, and (6) begin to conceptualize the neurobiology of psychotherapy. Whether you are an experienced clinician, psychiatric resident, or trainee in the other mental health professions, this book will help you become more conver­sant with the many issues involved in integrating psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy.

Rediscovery of Awe: Splendor, Mystery and the Fluid Center of Life by Kirk J. Schneider (Paragon House Publishers) offers a potential bridge between two ostensible adversaries today: science and religion (also conceived as relativism vs. absolutism, atheism vs. theism, and postmodernity vs. fundamentalism).

At its core, Rediscovery of Awe is a practical, psychological translation of an emerging spiritual transformation—a humanistic spirituality. It presents a provocative, and revolutionary, vision. The aim of the book is to revive a sense of awe—the humility and wonder, thrill and anxiety, splendor and mystery of living—in self, society, and spirit. It is an attempt to revive the capacity to be moved. Rediscovery of Awe promotes a new relation to life, and illustrates this relation over a broad range: from child-raising to education to the workplace, and from religion to politics and ethics. Set against our awe-deprived times, in which we tend to favor either a high tech, consumerist mentality or, contrastingly, a dogmatic, fundamentalist orientation, it presents a dynamic and rejuvenating alternative.

Written in an engaging yet scholarly manner, Rediscovery of Awe is different from inspirational books in that it aims at revolutionizing, not just our individual lives, but the institutions that shape and inform them. It is a hard-hitting critique, but also a challenge to the very purpose of our contemporary lives, a purpose that begs to be nurtured and explored.

At this time, two dominant worldviews—nihilistic relativism and dogmatic fundamentalism—threaten to tear our world asunder, Rediscovery of Awe offers a restorative alternative. It weds faith to doubt, and the depth and pathos of religiosity to the openness and discernment of science. The starting point of consciousness is awe. We humans first experience the world as overwhelming. From the moment we are first aware, we are aware of our meagerness. From the moment we reflect on the world, we sense how hopeless, helpless, and vulnerable we are. And yet, close on the heels of this despair is a riveting sense of possibility… We are thrilled, enthralled, and exalted by our condition as much as it overpowers us. There are many problems with conventional maxims of balance. The conventional center is dull and static whereas the proposal of this book is a ‘fluid’ center wherein the possibility for a poignant and passionate life becomes attainable. 

Zen and Psychotherapy: Integrating Traditional and Nontraditional Approaches by Christopher J. Mruk, Joan Hartzell (Springer Publishing Company) Exploring the role of spirituality and religion in treatment, this book provides a sound clinical and academic rationale for exploring incorporating principles of Zen in traditional psychotherapy.

The authors, one a clinical educator and social scientist, the other a nurse psychotherapist and practicing Buddhist present a fascinating dialog on the "science" and the "art" sides of the art-science debate. Practical suggestions are included for achieving a balance between these two poles of the helping and healing process.

Excerpt: The issues that give rise to this book and our response to them may be of interest to mental health practitioners, supervisors, and educators in at least three ways. The first one concerns the main topic, which is the question of whether it is possible to integrate traditional (scientifically based) approaches to helping people deal with various problems of living with nontraditional ones and, if so, is that desirable? More specifically, we will explore how basic Zen principles may complement traditional therapeutic practices that are based on more scientific research. For reasons that will become clear in this chapter, interest in the psychotherapeutic possibilities of Zen has increased substantially in the past decade (Brazier, 1995; Kopp, 1988; Rosenbaum, 1998), along with a rise in investigating religious, spiritual, or meaning-oriented nontraditional therapies. Therefore, it may be helpful to distinguish our approach from the others before we move on to the next issue.

Even a cursory examination of online booksellers reveals that there has been an explosion of popular interest in Zen during the past twenty years, including what is becoming known as "Western Zen" (Goldstein, 2002), which is a term used to describe how traditional schools of Zen are being modified in the process of translation and adoption. Some books on Zen and psychotherapy focus primarily on helping the reader to understand what Zen is. Since this task is a very considerable one in itself, such an approach leaves it largely up to the reader to think about how to apply Zen concepts in clinical settings. Others tend to present an overview of Zen and then move directly into how it may be applied to the psychotherapeutic enterprise, usually by attempting to show how Zen is compatible with a particular psychotherapeutic perspective, such as the psychodynamic, humanistic, or even cognitive points of view. Rather than attempting to convince the reader of the merits of Zen and instead of presenting ourselves as masters of it, we are more interested in helping clinicians, supervisors, and educators understand specific Zen principles that seem to hold significant therapeutic value, and how they are compatible with traditional, empirically oriented, scientifically based education and training, regardless of one's particular academic or disciplinary orientation. The support we offer for this position is both academic and clinical. As such, our argument consists of analyzing the relationship between traditional and nontraditional psychotherapies and the use of clinical case studies.

The next feature of this book that may be of interest is its method because the way we go about the project reflects and addresses the interdisciplinary nature of our field. In other words, the authors come from two mental health disciplines, in this case psychology and mental health nursing, which gives an interdisciplinary quality to our look at contemporary psychotherapy and to Zen. We think this approach is valuable because, on one hand, the typical mental health professional acquires his or her training in what might be called a "mono-disciplined" fashion: medical practitioners are trained primarily in biological therapies by medical practitioners at medical settings, psychologists are trained largely in psychological therapies by psychologists at psychological settings, social workers are typically trained in social systems by social workers in social services settings, and so forth. Consequently, although they may all work with similar types of clients or problems, each group tends to learn different (and sometimes conflicting) theoretical views, specific (and sometimes jargonistic) technical languages, and certain (as well as sometimes opposing) preferences in terms of how to go about helping others. Indeed, differences between perspectives in our field can be so great that Fancher (1995) describes them as reflecting distinct "cultures of healing," a metaphor

that we feel fully captures this important dimension of mental health care both historically and today.

On the other hand, however, as soon as we graduate, most of us find ourselves coming into regular contact with other disciplines in our work. For instance, we may encounter various specialties in the hospital setting, interdisciplinary teams of professionals in community mental health centers, and gatekeepers from different backgrounds in managed care, some of whom are more business than clinically oriented. Eventually, many of us come to find that the privileged perspective we thought our particular discipline had to offer may not be as special as we once thought: Over time, the complexity of our work and experiences with mental health professionals trained in disciplines other than our own usually forces us to realize that there are a number of legitimate ways to understand and treat mental illness, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses. Given this reality concerning our work, it is very surprising that our formal training often does not prepare us very well for the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of our work. At best, mono-disciplined education is simply outdated and at worst, it is an impediment to all involved, especially to the patient or client. By contrast, an interdisciplinary approach is helpful because it builds bridges between practitioners, and, ultimately, this climate may create a better environment for our clients. This aspect of the book may be especially important for educators and supervisors to think about, because they shape future clinicians and are obliged to prepare them in the best ways possible. Giving only cursory attention to the interdisciplinary aspect of our work is certainly a disservice to our students and it may even be an ethical issue.

Another aspect of this book that may be of interest to readers, especially clinicians and supervisors, focuses on the personal level of our work, especially its impact on us as individuals over time. Although tremendously satisfying, it is well known that, at times, mental health work is very difficult, extremely demanding, or just plain old "hard." The greatest challenge we face, of course, is that of helping clients who are experiencing acute distress, in whatever form it may take. Given the nature of our work, what clinician has not encountered situations where traditional training seems to fail? Who among us has not wished for something toward which to turn in a crisis situation when all that we have done so far to help seems to be of no avail? Which one of us has not reached an impasse with a client, supervisee, or student that we cannot seem to break? It is precisely at such times that the clinician, supervisor, or teacher begins to appreciate the practical value of an alternative approach: We will also see that it is at this point that the wisdom of Zen maybe just  enough to make a welcome and positive difference.

Our work can be challenging in another way, too, because it deals with human suffering, again and again. The stress of dealing with so much pain day in and day out, year after year, can take a toll all of its own. Couple that kind of stress with the pressures of growing caseloads, increasingly severe client problems, as well as the incessant demands of managed care, and it is no wonder that so many clinicians or supervisors long for occupational change, may appear to become less caring over time, or sometimes burn out of the field altogether. In this sense, it is important to realize that Zen is concerned with human suffering, and with becoming free of it, too. Moreover, Zen has been doing that for many, many centuries, whereas traditional therapies are just moving into their second one. Even if Zen does not have the empirical appeal of more scientific perspectives, it has been working on similar issues for so long that it is likely to have something to teach us about what causes suffering and what may reduce it. Indeed, we will see that Zen may even show us a way to transform the pressures we face as clinicians and supervisors into tools for becoming better at our work, as well as for helping us to continue to look forward to it much longer than otherwise is likely.

Now that we have identified the major themes of the book and why they may be of interest to clinical and academic audiences, we can introduce the form of our investigation and the course it will take. The first step concerns how to go about integrating traditional and nontraditional therapies, with Zen as a case in point. Thus, chapter 1 describes the contemporary interest in nontraditional approaches to health care today. It also focuses on why there is a need for therapists trained in the various mental health traditions to consider this issue in their own work and why Zen may be of value to most of us in this regard, no matter what our clinical training or orientation may be. The next step is to understand the basic characteristics of Zen, so in the second chapter Joan provides us with a clinically oriented understanding of the heart of this particular approach to helping and healing. She begins with discussing The Four Noble Truths, which includes understanding the inevitability of human suffering, the causes of suffering, cessation or the process of reducing suffering, and the Eightfold Path, which leads to the way out of suffering. In addition to describing each of the classical "four pillars" of Zen, Joan illustrates their clinical relevance through various case studies and examples. Next she identifies six more Zen principles that have demonstrable therapeutic potential: acceptance, fearlessness, truth, compassion, attachment, and impermanence. In each case, Joan begins by identifying a particular principle, then describes what it means in Zen literature, and ends by giving actual examples of how she uses the principle to help her work. In this way, we present Zen in theory and in action.

In chapter 3, I endeavor to show where alternative approaches to under-standing and treating mental health problems fit into the general therapeutic continuum that spans traditional social and behavioral sciences. The first part of the chapter briefly presents the basic concepts, strengths, and weaknesses of the biological, learning, cognitive, psychodynamic, and humanistic perspectives. The next part involves following a client who suffers from an interpersonal betrayal resulting in depression as he goes through treatment with a therapist who works from each point of view, including one based on Zen. The goals of this chapter are to provide a context for understanding alternative therapies in relation to traditional approaches and to establish the theoretical foundations for using Zen to help reduce human suffering in clinical practice.

The final two chapters are more practical. For example, in the first part of chapter 4, I ask Joan a number of questions concerning how Zen might help me deal with client-related issues that any clinician is likely to face. They include how Zen might help me to listen better, to deal with a difficult client more easily, or, most important, what to do when my traditional training fails me. She responds by identifying which of the 10 Zen concepts (The Four Noble Truths and the six general principles) may apply best to such a situation and then illustrates how that is so with a clinical example from her many years of psychiatric experience. The other section of the chapter follows the same format, but the direction of the questions changes to the other side of the therapeutic coin: This time I ask Joan how Zen could help me, the traditionally oriented therapist that I am, with various issues that concern the clinician as well as our clients. These themes include such things as how Zen can help one deal with making a clinical error, avoid falling prey to countertransference, and better tolerate the stresses of the work we do as clinicians. Again, she responds by identifying a relevant Zen concept or principle, discussing how it can be therapeutic, and then presenting a case study example that shows how the concept or principle may be applied in a practical setting.

In the fifth and final chapter we talk about how the principles of Zen may be integrated conceptually into the theory, practice, and teaching of psychotherapy. We begin with discussing in dialog form how Zen stands in relation to such issues as the medical model and evidence-based therapy, which dominate the mental health care scene today. Then, we take a look at how Zen can be incorporated into other aspects of our work, especially teaching students to become therapists and supervising them afterward. Next, we return to our original question and talk about the possibility of integrating Zen and psychotherapy by understanding Zen as a complement to our work.

This activity involves examining the progress that has been made on integrating psychotherapies in general. In particular, we look at Zen in regard to the three major ways that people try to bring different psychotherapeutic approaches together today, which are called "Theoretical Integration," "Cornmon Factors," and "Technical Eclecticism" (Wachtel & Messer, 1997). In each case, we ask what the particular approach might have to say about integrating Zen into the traditional scientific picture. We then conclude with a look at how clinicians who find themselves interested in more advanced Zen concepts or in more Zen training can further their personal or professional development.

Next, it might be helpful to say an introductory word about the interdisciplinary nature of the book and why it is important here. One thing that an interdisciplinary background brings to any book is a broader range of experience than is usually otherwise possible. Ours includes working in psychiatric hospitals, staffing acute emergency psychiatric services, doing drug and alcohol work, offering outpatient community mental health services, engaging in private practice, as well as teaching and writing in the academic setting. In addition, this experience also involves clinical, supervisory, and teaching responsibilities, as well as interacting with a wide range of mental health professionals. At one point in our careers, we even had the good fortune to work together as a part of the mental health team in the same psychiatric setting. This one happened to be a "24/7" emergency psychiatric service that Joan created in the middle 1970s at St. Lawrence Hospital in Lansing, Michigan. This program was recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health as an "exemplary system" (Freedman, Kaplan, & Shaddock, 1975, p. 2,318) and was one of the first comprehensive systems in the country.

This familiarity with the various traditions, disciplines, and practices of the field creates a rich common ground for our work for this book. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary activity also involves appreciating differences, such as differences in training, in theoretical orientations, in preferred practices, in levels of professional status, and in administrative reporting lines, for example. Here, differences are important because they help us to understand and remember just how challenging the task of integrating different approaches really is: it is not just a case of "theory smushing" (London, 1986). On one hand, for instance, as a psychologist and professor, I have a clear preference for using and teaching about therapeutic theories and methods that have good empirical support. After all, we are dealing with the lives of others in our work and it is only ethical to give them the best we have, which is to say theories that have support and techniques that can be shown to work. Only the scientific method can provide us with this kind of information, so I value it highly. Moreover, although I have worked in a number of mental health settings for a number of years before becoming a professor, most of my career has been in the academic setting, which has something of a research focus. Thus, in a certain sense, my training and orientation is geared more toward "helping the mind," which is to say more characteristic of traditional therapeutic approaches.

On the other hand, Joan began her work as a psychiatric nurse and then earned an M.A. in therapeutic psychology much later in her career. She has over 50 years of acute psychiatric care experience that ranges from inpatient psychiatric work, through supervising an urban-based 24-hour emergency psychiatric service mentioned above, to working with the severely and chronically mentally ill in community mental health settings. In addition, she is still working almost full-time in the field today, at age 74, and does so out of a sense of choice, dedication, and joy that few of us have. In a word, Joan has seen it all, or at least most of it. During this time, she also witnessed a good portion of the evolution of traditional approaches to helping others. Therefore, in addition to its progress, Joan has also encountered the limits of traditional mental health care; from the brutality of psychiatric insulin shock therapy, through the many fads of the 1970s, to the neglect that seems to happen all too often with managed care as it is practiced today. Out of necessity as much as curiosity given the state of our field during this time, she became interested in alternatives long before that became popular. After exploring such diverse possibilities as counseling and Native American shamanism, Joan found a home in Zen and has been practicing some form of it in her work longer than most clinicians have been practicing their entire careers! Appropriately enough, then, she represents the nontraditional view, or the "healing the heart" aspect of this book.

In a certain sense, our respective backgrounds provide a rather balanced foundation for a dialog between traditional and alternative approaches, or for "helping the mind and healing the heart" as we like to think of it. For instance, when Joan asked me to describe my vision for the book in the early stages of writing it, I admitted that I was a little leery, because I didn't want to become involved with one that talked mainly about Zen as a religion or a philosophy, or with one that tried to persuade clinicians to become practitioners of "the vision." Rather, I hoped that we could develop something that the typical mental health practitioner, clinical supervisor, beginning student, or instructor could sit down and read with a reasonable degree of comfort, which is to say without a lot of mystical or philosophical jargon, and be able to apply to their work in a practical fashion. Much to my relief (and to her amusement), she enthusiastically agreed, pointing out that Zencan complement our work as clinicians and that she had been doing just that for years. Then, with typical Zen ambiguity, she added that she would never presume to be a teacher of Zen anyway, only a student, so I had nothing to worry about! In other words, our interdisciplinary degrees and backgrounds influence our writing, but in a way that provides a balance of perspective and practice that is helpful in attempting to integrate traditional and nontraditional approaches. Further, such an appreciation of similarities and differences means that we are not asking readers to give up their particular perspectives or practices, but only to think about possibilities that might complement their work. Which of us cannot benefit from that?

The final introductory word concerns the literary style we have chosen for this investigation and why it was selected. The book takes the form of a dialog between partners who share a mutual interest, but who also come from very different points of view in terms of disciplines, backgrounds, and orientations. The overall tone of this discussion moves from one that begins as rather academic and formal to one that is more personal and spontaneous at the end. This format was chosen for two reasons. First, we talk about things, and to each other, about matters that are both academic and personal. On one hand, integrating traditional and nontraditional psychotherapies is a theoretical challenge. As such, it involves dialoging traditional premises and points of view with alternative positions, which requires more formal description and argument. On the other hand, the work that we do is a very interpersonal endeavor and it is fitting that we address each other at that level, too.

Second, dialog is one of the earliest methods of inquiry people have used to learn more about life and living it well. Plato used this philosophical method with his students, one of whom was Aristotle, who then went on to set the foundations for the scientific method. The Buddha did the same with his disciples and created the other major branch of knowledge that is important for our project. With such a tradition already pointing the way, it is difficult to see how we could go wrong by thinking of the book as a dialog! Of course, conversations must have at least two participants. My voice will generally represent the traditional scientific approach to psychotherapy because that background is more a part of my history than it is for Joan. She will speak for the nontraditional part of the picture, especially from a Zen perspective because that is her orientation. Together we will be asking the question of whether or not it is possible to integrate Zen and psychotherapy and, if so, would it be desirable for the individual practitioner, supervisor, or educator to do that? Although we may become quite animated in the last chapter, the general tone of the conversation is one of mutual respect and shared curiosity.

We trust that the reader's participation in the dialog that follows will share these essential characteristics.

By the end of this book, we hope that readers find themselves able to do at least three things reasonably well. The first is to understand the theoretical issues concerning the possibility of using complementary and alternative techniques in clinical practice. The second is the ability to identify 10 basic concepts and principles of Zen that have therapeutic relevance and to see how they may help augment clinical work. The third is to appreciate how important it is to develop strategies for using at least some of those principles to help educate, train, and supervise clinicians in an interdisciplinary world. It should be said that since the book is a conversation, it could be joined from a number of junctures. The most logical one is to start at the beginning and simply follow the chapters in order, which is the way we intend them. However, those who are largely interested in Zen may want to jump in with chapters 2, 4, and 5. Similarly, those who have primarily an academic interest could do the same thing with chapters 1, 3, and 5. The rest of chapter 1 addresses five issues that may be unavoidable when attempting to integrate traditional and nontraditional psychotherapies. They are: a modern health care paradox; the problem of defining traditional, complementary, and alternative approaches to health and mental care; a Gordian knot in the field of mental health care; the historical roots of a paradigmatic problem that haunts integrating traditional and nontraditional approaches in the West; and a discussion of why we have selected to examine Zen as a case in point.

The Psychologist as Detective: An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology, Third Edition by Randolph A. Smith, Stephen F. Davis (Prentice Hall) From our vantage point, research in psychology is like a detective case; hence the title we have chosen, The Psychologist as Detective. A problem presents itself; we discover clues; we must evaluate bits of evidence that compete for our attention and accept or discard them; and finally, we prepare a report or summary of the case (research) for consideration by our peers.
When presented in this light, the research process in psychology will, we believe, be an interesting and stimulating endeavor for students. In short, our goal is to attract students to psychological research because of its inherent interest. More

Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self by Allan N. Schore (Norton); Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self (TWO-VOLUME SET) by Allan N. Schore (Norton) The latest work from a pioneer in the study of the development of the self. In 1994 Allan Schore published his groundbreaking book, Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self, in which he integrated a large number of experimental and clinical studies from both the psychological and the biological disciplines in order to construct an overarching model of social and emotional development. Since then he has expanded his regulation theory in more than two dozen articles and essays covering multiple disciplines, including neuroscience, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, developmental psychology, attachment, and trauma. Affect Dysregulation and Disorders of the Self contains writings on developmental affective neuroscience and developmental neuropsychiatry. Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self contains chapters on neuropsychoanalysis and developmentally oriented psychotherapy. Absolutely essential reading for all clinicians, researchers, and general readers interested in normal and abnormal human development. More  

Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis by Peter Fonagy (Other Press) Offers an understanding of the relationship that has evolved between psychoanalytic and attachment theories. For developmental psychoanalysts.
Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis
undertakes to demonstrate that the relationship between attachment theory and psychoanalysis is more complex than adherents of either community generally recognize. Beginning with a brief overview of attachment theory and some key findings of attachment research, and continuing through psychoanalytic approaches from Freud to Daniel Stern, this book offers a unique contribution to our understanding of our the subject.

Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing by Holly Skodol Wilson, Carol Ren Kneisl, Eileen Trigoboff (Prentice Hall) Millions of people worldwide suffer from mental health disor­ders. In fact, five of the leading causes of disability in the world today are psychiatric in nature. Psychiatric-mental health nursing is a specialized area that employs a wide range of explana­tory theories and research on human behavior as its science and the purposeful use of self as its art. Understanding people who are searching for meaning through interaction in complex times demands the most authoritative and contemporary knowledge and clinical competence. It is through the power of knowledge and clinical competence that psychiatric-mental health nurses can help clients from diverse cultures to live with uncertainty, unfamiliarity and unpredictability and to pursue creative healing on psychobiologic and spiritual levels. Our goal for this textbook, Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, and its companion supplements is to provide students and practicing psychiatric-mental health nurses with the most up-to-date, evidence-based, culturally competent, authorita­tive, comprehensive resource available and to present it in an accessible, clinically relevant, and professional format. More

The Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday Life by Daniel N. Stern (Norton) An exploration of the power of the profound but fleeting experiences at the root of interpersonal relationships. Beginning with the claim that we are psychologically alive only in the now, readers are invited to reconsider their day-to-day experiences. Certain moments of shared immediate experience—such as a knowing glance across a dinner table—are paradigmatic of what Stern shows to be the core of human experience, the three to five seconds he identifies as "the present moment." This book offers a novel response to age-old questions about the passage of time, what the future offers, and how humans change during the course of their lives. (Review pending)

Philosophy and Neuroscience: A Ruthlessly Reductive Account by John Bickle (Studies in Brain and Mind, Volume 2: Kluwer Academic) is the first book-length treatment of philosophical issues and implications in current cellular and molecular neuroscience. John Bickle articulates a philosophical justification for investigating "lower level" neuroscientific research and describes a set of experimental details that have recently yielded the reduction of memory consolidation to the molecular mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) More

Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions by Jaak Panskepp (Series in Affective Science: Oxford University Press) Some investigators have argued that emotions, especially animal emotions, are illusory concepts outside the realm of scientific inquiry. In Affective Neuroscience, Jaak Panksepp argues that emotional systems in humans, as well as other animals, are necessarily combinations of innate and learned tendencies. The book will appeal to researchers and professors in the field of emotion. More

Affect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of Self edited by Peter Fonagy (Other Press) Fonagy, et al present a thorough and careful reconsideration of the nature and etiology of psychological symptoms and syndromes. They integrate the latest relational concepts of psychoanalytic thinking with the latest concepts of neuropsychology. The result is both radically new and consistent with the best of the foundations of psychoanalyis (Pierre Janet's 19th century understanding of the role of trauma; Freud's pre-recantation focus on trauma).
The writing varies from chapter to chapter, apparently with different authors (not identified by chapter). It is consistently relevant and worthwhile, but some chapters are clearly written and easy to follow, while others are a bit turgid and require dedicated attention.

Self-Embodying Mind by Jason W. Brown (Station Hill Press)  extends microgenetic theory from an account of disorders of language, action, and perception to a process-based model of the mind/ brain state. The model is explicit and testable, particularly with regard to the serial order of entrainment of linked cognitive and neural systems and the temporal parameters of the entrainment sequence. The theory is centered in the momentary prehistory of mental contents, their microdevelopment or the process through which they unfold. More

Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience by Max R. Bennett, P. M. S. Hacker, James R. Davis (Blackwell) Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience presents the fruits of a cooperative project be­tween a neuroscientist and a philosopher. It is concerned with the conceptual founda­tions of cognitive neuroscience - foundations constituted by the structural relationships among the psychological concepts involved in investigations into the neural underpin­nings of human cognitive, affective and volitional capacities. Investigating logical relations among concepts is a philosophical task. Guiding that investigation down pathways that will illuminate brain research is a neuroscientific one. Hence our joint venture. More

Brain Development and Cognition: A Reader by Mark H. Johnson, Yuko Munakata, Rick O. Gilmore (Blackwell) The first edition of this successful reader brought together key readings in the area of developmental cognitive neuroscience for students. Now updated in order to keep up with this fast-moving field, the volume includes new readings illustrating recent developments along with updated versions of previous contributions. These revisions ensure that the collection will remain a crucial resource for anyone teaching developmental cognitive neuroscience or cognitive development. More

Cognitive-Affective Neuroscience of Depression and Anxiety Disorders by Dan J Stein (Martin Dunitz Ltd) Text, for clinicians, covers major depression, as well as the most important anxiety disorders seen in clinical practice: generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Includes diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment.

Biological Aspects of Affective Disorders edited by Roger Horton, Cornelius Katona (Neuroscience Perspective Series: Academic Press) Intended for research (beginning) neuroscientists, pharmacologists and and biological psychiatrists, this book is the first in a new series which aims to provide up-to-date reviews of its topical subject from the biochemical and pharmacological points of view with the historical perspective and prospects for clinical application. The scientific/biological approach to psychiatric conditions is relatively new but gaining in momentum. A new section covering this area has been introduced to the new MRCPysch course, and this book is recommended reading for the course.

The Problem of the Soul: Two Visions of Mind and How to Reconcile Them by Owen Flanagan (Basic Books) The illusions we must give up--concerning free will, personal identity, and the existence of the soul--and the (surprisingly rich) ideas we can keep. More

User's Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain by John J. Ratey MD (Basic Books) For the first time ever, discoveries in our understanding of the brain are changing anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, and psychology--indeed, the brain itself may become a catalyst for transforming the very nature of these inquiries. More

The Secret Life of the Brain by Richard M. Restak, David Grubin (Joseph Henry Press) well-illustrated popular survey of recent research and theories of human brain development and capacities, key to the PBS television series of same name.  Ten years ago a presidential proclamation ushered in the “Decade of the Brain.” We have since realized enormous benefits from this decade of discovery. Scientists now have a better understanding and appreciation of the complexity of this rather unassuming three-pound mass of interwoven cells. Over the years, we have gleaned insights into how the brain functions, physically and chemically. We have even seen evidence of how a healthy brain contributes to our overall sense of wellness. And perhaps most important of all, we now—more than ever—recognize the awesome power and potential of the human brain. More


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