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Review Essays of Academic, Professional & Technical Books in the Humanities & Sciences



The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville translated with introduction and notes by Stephen A. Barney, W. J. Lewis, J. A. Beach, Oliver Berghof [Hardcover] (Cambridge University Press) is a complete English translation of the Latin Etymologies of Isidore, Bishop of Seville (c.560-636). Isidore compiled the work between c.615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject matter. It contains much lore of the late classical world beginning with the Seven Liberal Arts, including Rhetoric, and touches on thousands of topics ranging from the names of God, the terminology of the Law, the technologies of fabrics, ships and agriculture to the names of cities and rivers, the theatrical arts, and cooking utensils. Isidore provides etymologies for most of the terms he explains, finding in the causes of words the underlying key to their meaning. This book offers a highly readable translation of the twenty books of the Etymologies, one of the most widely known texts for a thousand years from Isidore's time. More and More 

Okay here is a survey of many of the English language dictionaries of philosophy which are serviceable but all are idiosyncratic to a degree. James M. Baldwins old classic Dictionary probably approaches what I have in mind to some degree. I think we need a dictionary of philosophy written upon historical principles where each key term is defined by key thinkers and by era. Where many lesser terms of philosophy usually only found in phenomenological studies or orphan terms proposed by secondary thinkers are introduced and indexed. Given this pipe dream, I also would attempt concise syntactic analysis of various languages of philosophy as we are now awash in competing paradigms of philosophical and logical languages. So any scholars out there aware of any such project? 

The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy by Nicholas Bunnin, Jiyuan Yu (Blackwell Publishers) is a concise reference to the whole history of Western philosophy, from ancient Greece to the present day. The Dictionary's entries are written in a clear and direct style, which makes it easy for readers to engage with the central questions of philosophy, from epistemology to ethics, and from metaphysics to the philosophy of mathematics. The authors pay particular attention to terms that are crucial to contemporary debate. A unique feature of the Dictionary is its use of a quotation to conclude each entry on philosophical terms. These quotations not only illustrate the philosophical issues involved, but also serve as signposts for further study. Queries and objections are included in many of the entries to encourage readers to be active and critical in their response.

The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy by Robert Audi (Cambridge University Press) (Hardcover) is very comprehensive, thoroughly up-to-date, and probably the best short reference book in English on philosophy." Richard Rorty, University of Virginia

Widely acclaimed as the most authoritative and accessible one-volume dictionary available in English, this second edition offers an even richer, more comprehensive, and up-to-date survey of ideas and thinkers written by an international team of 436 contributors. This second edition includes the most comprehensive entries on major philosophers, 400 new entries including over fifty on preeminent contemporary philosophers, extensive coverage of rapidly developing fields such as the philosophy of mind and applied ethics, more entries on non-Western philosophy than any comparable volume, and increased coverage of Continental philosophy.

"The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy is a superb reference work that will help philosophers and non-philosophers alike to understand major figures and ideas in the history of philosophy. Superbly cross-referenced and meticulously edited it will also provide students and teachers with leads to follow, and guides for further reading and research." Edward Said, Columbia University "Elegantly-written and thoughtfully compiled, the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy is an essential reference work for any humanist's library. An accessible digest of even the most complex ideas central to the Western philosophical tradition, the Dictionary is a remarkably useful introduction to the history of ideas and to the thinkers who have been so passionate about these ideas." Henry Louis Gates, Jr. "The first edition of this comprehensive yet concise dictionary quickly established itself as one of the preeminent reference sources in the field. The second edition is significantly larger, including 400 new entries, many on non-Western and non-European philosophy. A noteworthy change from the first edition is the inclusion of some 50 entries on living philosophers, and much attention has been paid to rapidly developing fields such as bioethics and political philosophy. Many of the existing entries have been expanded (e.g., the entry 'postmodern' is some 50 percent longer than in the previous edition). A collaborative work of truly international scope, the dictionary is indispensable both for the range of subjects covered and for the lucidity of the writing." J. R. Luttrell, Princeton University "Written with authority and comprehensiveness, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy belongs in every philosophy reference collection." Reference Book Review "It is sure to be a mainstay reference work for years to come. Highly recommended." The Readers Review "Concise and readable but comprehensive in coverage..." S. P. Foster, Choice "This is easily the best one-volume reference tool on philosophy that I have seen...I found articles on topics that I knew nothing about very helpful, succinct and clear; on those I am familiar with, the treatment was invariably excellent." Australasian Journal of Philosophy "All in all, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy is a remarkable achievement....it will prove to be extremely useful to teachers and students of philosophy." Ethics "This is a must-buy volume, a standard reference work on which scholars will be relying for decades." Steve W. Lemke, The Theological Educator 

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy by Simon Blackburn (Oxford Paperback Reference) (Oxford University Press) (Hardcover) a concise, clear, and witty dictionary of philosophical and political terms covering a wide array of traditions, both Eastern and Western. And like all the best reference works, it carries the flavor of an individual author, displaying, here and there, touches of idiosyncratic wit and charm. Many of Blackburn's definitions are masterpieces of concision and fairness--see, for instance, his entry on Nietzsche, which squeezes a century's worth of scholarship into two-and-a-half lucid columns.

The Gambler's Fallacy, the Dirty Hands Argument, Pascal's Wager, Buridan's Ass, Wittgenstein's Beetle in the Box--philosophical terms can be both intriguing and baffling. Now, eminent philosopher Simon Blackburn offers the most authoritative and up-to-date dictionary of philosophy available in a single volume, packed with helpful information for the novice and with astute observations for the expert. Ranging from Aristotle to Zen, the two thousand plus entries cover the entire span of philosophy, from the Vedas (written over three thousand years ago) to the most recent technical terminology, with ample coverage of important themes from Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and Jewish philosophy.

Here are all the terms one would expect to find in a comprehensive dictionary of philosophy--idealism and empiricism, ethics and aesthetics, Epicureanism and Stoicism, deism and pantheism, liberalism and conservatism, existentialism and logical positivism, and much more. Blackburn also defines many terms and concepts not normally found in such reference works, including entries for apathy, Elis (the Greek city which passed a law exempting all philosophers from taxation), laughter, and the meaning of life, and he includes relevant terms from disciplines such as mathematics, physics, biology, artificial intelligence, and linguistics. In addition, there are capsule biographies of nearly five hundred individuals, from the pre-Socratics, to such major figures as Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Locke, Hobbes, Hegel, Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche, to such contemporary figures as Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Richard Rorty, Simone de Beauvoir, and Luce Irigaray. Many more women appear here than in other philosophical dictionaries, ranging from Lady Anne Finch Conway, a 17th-century Quaker philosopher and an influence on Leibniz, to Hypatia, an important 4th-century Neoplatonist and mathematician of Alexandria, who was tortured and murdered by Christian Monks at the behest of the patriarch Cyril. And Blackburn also includes figures such as Einstein, Darwin, and Aesop. Finally, Blackburn interjects much of his own personality and wit into these entries. For instance, writing on Francis Bacon, he observes that Bacon's "legal philosophy was one of absolute duty to the sovereign, which cannot have hindered his rise to the position of Lord Chancellor." And he begins his entry on apathy with "Although it is the particular enemy of teachers and sports coaches, apathy often gets a good philosophical press, especially in ethical systems that regard desire and worldly interest as low and unworthy."

A survey of philosophy through the eyes of one of its leading practitioners, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy is both a handy reference and an intriguing book in which to browse. It is an essential volume for anyone interested in philosophy. 

The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy by Thomas Mautner (Penguin Reference) This may well be the best dictionary of philosophy available: better value for money than many of its larger competitors. Its secret is that it's well written: one clear paragraph from this book conveys more than pages from more run-of-the-mill dictionaries. A special feature of this book is the self-portraits by major contemporary philosophers: there's enormous value in hearing where they've come from and where they believe they are headed. Briefer, clearer and more memorably written than most histories of philosophy, if you can afford only one reference work in philosophy, put this one on your shelf. You won't regret it.
The Dictionary of Philosophy by Dagobert D. Runes (Philosophical Library: Concise Dictionaries: Citadel Press) (Hardcover) For many years a non parallel Dictionary of philosophy, it still holds up especially in logic and mid-twentieth century assessment of philosophical  debate. Not to be overlooked. 

A Dictionary of Philosophy: Revised Second Edition by Antony G. Flew (St. Martin's Griffin) (Hardcover) updated and revised edition of a reference work that has proved invaluable as a tool for the student of philosophy, as well as a handbook for the general reader. From the classical thinkers through Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Kant, up to the modern age of Russell and Wittgenstein, this comprehensive dictionary spans the personalities, terminology, and vocabulary of hundreds of philosophers over thousands of years.

This second edition of an important and invaluable work has been completely revised, and fifteen new major articles have been added. Now, more than ever before, A Dictionary of Philosophy is a necessary and timely work for the modern student of thought.

The weakness in this reference work is that the definitions are sometimes not germane to a reader looking for orientation to a terms use. 

HarperCollins Dictionary of Philosophy Second Edition: In-Depth Explanations and Examples Covering More than 3,000 Entries by Peter A. Angeles (HarperCollins Dictionary) (Hardcover) The student of philosophy often feels bewildered by the vast terminology of the subject. HarperCollins Dictionary of Philosophy helps lessen the confusion by providing a single source of clear and understandable definitions of philosophic terms. Emphasis is on the areas most commonly covered in introductory philosophy courses: epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics and the philosophies of religion and politics.

Angeles has put together a compact and clear volume of various philosophical terms, as well as brief biographies of all major philosophers. The dictionary is extremely valuable to those, such as myself, who do not formally study philosophy yet wish to understand basic mechanisms and terminology. Of particular interest is the list of informal logical fallacies, informal. How many times have I listened to some blathering politician or read some moronic, glib newspaper article and been convinced that the author was being illogical? That has happened to me more than once, nice to have a list showing how we are being illogically swayed. 

Encyclopedic Dictionary of Philosophy by Il'ichev (French & European Publications) No info.

Abbreviated Dictionary of Philosophy Spanish & English by Jose Ferrater Mora (French & European Publications) No info. 

Collins Dictionary of Philosophy by Godfrey Norman Agmondis Vesey, P. Foulkes (HarperCollins (UK). A dictionary of philosophical terms containing over 350 entries, many of which are essay length. 

Indigo Dictionary of Philosophy (Indigo Books) The terms and concepts that have stimulated thinkers from Aristotle onward come to life in this most comprehensive, authoritative, and up-to-date dictionary of Philosophy available. Ideal for students or a general readership, it provides lively and accessible coverage of not only the Western philosophical tradition but also important themes from Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and other important Philosophical systems of the world. Features: 6500 entries including the most recent terms and concepts; the most comprehensive biographical coverage of major philosophers; terms relevant to philosophy from allied subject areas; extensive coverage of rapidly developing fields such as the philosophy of mind and applied ethics. 

Dictionary of Philosophy by Mario Augusto Bunge (Prometheus Books) Bunge is a prolific philosopher, lately concentrating on the social sciences and their relationship to philosophy. Many academic libraries hold all or part of his eight-volume Treatise on Basic Philosophy (Reidel/Kluwer, 1974^-89). In this new dictionary of "modern philosophical concepts, problems, principles, and theories," Bunge has attempted to create a fresh entry in a crowded field. This work concentrates on Western terms and ideas, omitting concepts the author considers to be obsolete or rooted in philosophic fashion or trends. In many ways, this is a dictionary of the philosophy of science, as Bunge uses scientific examples, especially from the physical sciences, to elucidate many concepts and focuses on concepts of interest to philosophers of science.

Entries are arranged alphabetically and range in length from a few sentences to a few paragraphs. Ample cross-references are provided. The definitions are fairly clear, and the examples used to illustrate concepts are appropriate although somewhat technical. Some of the entries include declarative or judgmental conclusions without sufficient explanation (e.g., existentialism is described as "a hodge-podge of enigmatic utterances").

Bunge's approach is not historical. Therefore, this work cannot stand on its own for beginning students of philosophy who need to understand the historical context and evolution of philosophic thought. Entries on terms such as form, falsifiability, and rationalism make no mention of the philosophers or times of their emergence as key concepts. In fact, the uninitiated reader could easily get the sense that philosophy is not something done by people, because there is almost no reference to philosophers at all. Furthermore, there are no entries on individual philosophers or schools of philosophic thought.

The tone of the entries is decidedly unique. On the one hand, many entries read more like a logic or mathematics text than a generally philosophical one. On the other hand, many entries have a more casual, almost humorous tone (there is an entry for hair-splitting, described as "a favorite with theologians and with philosophers without long-term research projects"). The result can be a little unsettling, as the text suddenly shifts from readable to technical with little warning. This is compounded by a tendency to unnecessarily wander into logical notation when plain language would do and a system of cross-references that uses upward-pointing arrows.

Given the complete lack of historical context, the focus on a somewhat narrow spectrum of philosophical concepts, and the opinionated nature of many of the conclusions, this is not a first choice for a one-volume dictionary of philosophy. Better choices would be The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (Cambridge, 1995) or A Dictionary of Philosophy (Blackwell, 1996). Comprehensive academic philosophy collections may want to consider this purchase. Bunge's approach will probably be best appreciated by logicians and philosophers of science.

From Library Journal
Adopting "a naturalist and scientistic standpoint" rather than staying "neutral," Bunge (Finding Philosophy in Social Science, Yale Univ., 1996) claims to define only philosophical terms of "enduring value," to shun "trendy" terms, and to avoid "solemnity" so as to "lighten, not burden" his listener. All that not only significantly limits the range of this dictionary but lends it an air of dogmatism. Although Bunge offers some correct and useful definitions (especially of terms in logic), his writing is so far from clear and the work so marred by numerous sloppy and incorrect definitions (e.g., defining "ambiguity" as denoting more than one object when the issue is whether one can tell which use is meant from the context, contradictions in defining "a priori/a posteriori" and "hypothesis") that, on the whole, this dictionary fails to come close to the many fine works already available. Avoid it! Instead, rely on Robert Audi's The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (LJ 7/95), Simon Blackburn's The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (LJ 11/1/94), and Ted Honderich's The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (LJ 7/95).?Robert Hoffman, York Coll., CUNY
Copyright 1999 Reed Business Information, Inc. 

Dictionary of Philosophy by S.C. Sinha (Anmol Publications) no info 

Dictionary of Philosophy by A. R. Lacey (Routledge; 3rd edition) First published in 1976, the Dictionary of Philosophy has established itself as the best available text of its kind, explaining often unfamiliar, complicated and diverse terminology. Providing an illuminating and informed introduction to central philosophical issues, concepts and perspectives in the core fields of metaphysics, epistemology and philosophical logic, the Dictionary takes the most commonly-used terms and notions and clarifies what they mean to the philosopher and what sort of problems the philosopher finds associated with them. The bibliographies supply core reading lists and each entry uses extensive cross referencing to related themes and concepts to provide greater access, control and comprehension. The Dictionary also provides those working in proximate fields with an understanding of areas of overlapping interest, concepts of common applicability and the full range and diversity of philosophical analysis and insight. The third edition of this bestselling student reference book provides an illuminating and informed introduction to the key issues, concepts and perspectives of philosophy. The Dictionary has been thoroughly revised and updated.

This book aims to give the layman or intending student a pocket encyclopedia of philosophy, one with a bias towards explaining terminology. The latter task is not an easy one since philosophy is regularly concerned with concepts which are unclear. It is one main part of philosophy to clarify them rather than use them. What I have tried to do is to take some of the commonest terms and notions in current English-speaking philosophy and to give the reader some idea of what they mean to the philosopher and what sort of problems he finds associated with them.

A work of this size cannot do justice to individual philosophers. The entries devoted to them offer only the barest outlines of their work, followed by the most philosophically important of their publications or, occasionally, those of other interest. Where possible, the original title and publication date is given, sometimes followed by the standard title of an English translation, or by a brief indication of the work's topic. Where applicable, each of these entries ends with cross-references to all other entries where the philosopher is mentioned unless cross-references are already given in the text of the entry. It is important to remember that both the description of a philosopher's activity and the list of his writings are by no means exhaustive. The choice of eighty or so philosophers represents, with some inevitable arbitrariness, a compromise between importance and popularity.

In the book as a whole, epistemology and logic occupy far more space than, say, ethics, politics or aesthetics. This is because the former subjects are the central ones. Terms and concepts from them are constantly used in discussing the latter subjects, while the opposite process occurs rarely, of at all. Mathematical logic needs a dictionary to itself, and only those terms are included which occur widely in philosophical and traditional logic. Much the same applies to linguistic theory. I have also generally avoided terms associated with only one author, for which a standard edition or commentary is best consulted.

Many philosophical terms, such as CONFIRMATION, also have a meaning in ordinary language and a technical meaning associated with a particular outlook. I have only occasionally mentioned the ordinary language one and I have not mentioned certain fairly obvious ambiguities of a kind common to many words. `Entailment' may mean the relation of entailment, a proposition entailed, and a proposition saying that something entails something else. More important, many words are too complex for even the philosophically significant ambiguities to be covered completely. I have tried to give the dominant sense or senses in current, or currently studied, philosophy, and especially those senses which are technical, or reflect or give rise to philosophical problems. The short definitions that begin many of the longer entries should be taken only as attempts at giving the general character of the term in question.

The wide-ranging reader must be prepared to find almost any term used in ways I have not mentioned. In particular, it can only mislead to offer brief and precise definitions of philosophical ` isms'. I have thus tried instead to bring out something of the general spirit of such terms, which often refer to features or aspects rather than to people or systems. Precision is similarly inapposite in recommending the use of a term like `the causal theory of meaning' rather than `causal theories of meaning'. Context or even whim will often decide whether one talks of different theories, or of variants of a single theory. Words like `principle', `law', `rule', `thesis', `axiom', again, are usually used almost indifferently in phrases like `the principle of ..:

The cross-references are denoted by small capitals (italic type simply picks terms out), and are of two kinds, within entries and self-standing. The former are given only when they seem useful. The term referred to is often mentioned in an approximate or abbreviated, but obvious, form. For example, the entry called 'con-version' might be referred to as `converse'. The self-standing cross-references are not a guarantee that a term is treated fully, but they may be thought of as forming a sort of index. Terms with more than one word normally appear only once. RUSSELL'S PARADOX appears under R but not under P, and the discussion of innate ideas can be traced through IDEA. Cross-references which occur, preceded by `See also', at the ends of articles may refer to the article as a whole, not just the last paragraph.

No single principle underlies the bibliographies. An item may be the original source of a notion, or a good, elementary, or accessible discussion, or a recent discussion from which previous ones can be traced, or a bibliographical source. I have mentioned certain reprintings of articles, but have not tried to be exhaustive, because space forbids and they are constantly being added to. I do not claim to have read everything mentioned, though I hope I have not mentioned things without adequate reason. The absence of a work is not of course a point against it. It may mean no more than that I have not come across it. Readers lucky enough to have access to P. Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 vols, 1967, will no doubt use it anyway, so I have hardly ever referred to it, though I am immensely indebted to it myself. J. O. Urmson (ed.), The Concise Encyclopaedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers, 1960, and D. Runes (ed.), Dictionary of Philosophy, 1942 (mainly its logical entries) have considerably helped me, and may also help the reader. The intermittent `recent work in ..: surveys in the American Philosophical Quarterly may also be mentioned. 

A Dictionary of Philosophy by M. Rosenthal, P. Yudin (University Press of the Pacific) Originally published in the Soviet Union, this very comprehensive dictionary gives some very different perspectives on philosophy. 

Dictionary of Philosophy by Murad Saifulin (International Publications) From Russian. No info

Dictionary of World Philosophy by A. Pablo Iannone (Routledge) [Download: Microsoft Reader]  covers the diverse and challenging terminology, concepts, schools and traditions of the vast field of world philosophy. It provides an extremely comprehensive resource and an essential first point of reference in a complex and expanding field of study. The Dictionary covers all the major subfields of the discipline. Entries are from West Africa, Arabic, Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Jewish, Korean, Latin American, Maori and Native American philosophy including Nahua philosophy, the important and so far largely neglected instance of Pre-Hispanic thought. Key features: * cross-references are used to highlight interconnections and the cross-cultural diffusion and adaptation of terms which has taken place over time * the user is led from specific terms to master entries which provide valuable historical and cultural context * each master entry is followed by at least two suggestions for further reading on the subject, creating a substantial bibliography of world philosophy * references extend beyond philosophy to related areas such as cognitive science, computer science, language and physics Subdisciplines covered include:* aesthetics * ethics * sociopolitical philosophy * the philosophy of law * epistemology * logic * the philosophy of science * the philosophy of mind * the philosophy of culture and history * metaphysics * the philosophy of religion Consultant Editors Enrique E. Mari, Argentina; Lorraine Code, York University, USA; Charles Butterworth, University of Maryland, USA; David Braybrooke, Dalhousie University, Canada; Kwame Gyeke, University of Ghana, Ghana; John Patterson, Massey University, New Zealand; A.S. Cua, Catholic University of America, USA; Asa Kasher, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Yong Choon Kim, University of Rhode Island, USA; Florencia Luna, Argentina. Tom Kasulis, USA; Leon Portilla, Mexico; Amy Oliver, American University, USA; David Braybrooke, University of Texas at Austin, USA,Charles E. Butterworth, University of Maryland at,College Park, USA,Lorraine Code, York University, Toronto, Canada,A.S. Cua,

 Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought by William L. Reese (Prometheus Books) (Hardcover) For thorough treatments of Ajivikas and the Apologists, the derivation and meaning of "angst" and "anthropopathism," and profiles of Apollo, Al-Kindi, and Antiochus of Ascalon, William Reese's Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion is the tome of preference. And it does a fine job with B through Z, as well. With more than 4,000 entries, the dictionary delves into Continental and Asian philosophies and religions, and provides biographies of more than 900 ancient, medieval, and modern philosophers. It's erudite, inclusive, accessible, and covers the major philosophers, gods, tenets, and terms of both the Eastern and Western worlds.

Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology by James M. Baldwin (University of Chicago Press) 'In completeness of definition and range of matter, Baldwin's Dictionary far outstrips all its predecessors ... a notable event in the history of philosophical studies. A monument of patient labor and sound scholarship, and as a work of reference it is without rival in its field.' - Philosophical Review

The aim of James Mark Baldwin's Dictionary was to present the terminology and concepts of philosophy, psychology and science 'with a fullness and authority not before undertaken'. To achieve this he engaged many of the modern world's most eminent scholars. The international board of contributors and advisers, including academics from the USA, Germany, France, Italy and Britain, reads like a Who's Who of early twentieth-century philosophy. It includes Bernard Bosanquet, John Dewey, William James, Hugo Mnsterberg, James Bonar, C. Lloyd Morgan, C. S. , Andrew Pringle-Pattison, Josiah Royce, G. F. Stout and Henry Sidgwick.

Covering an immense range of topics, Baldwin's Dictionary is a composite of 'dictionary' and 'encyclopedia', made up of vocabularies, definitions of terms, essays and articles. The Dictionary thus has an extremely wide scope, including entries on topics as diverse as anthropology, money, anaesthesia, peace, night-blindness, nihilism, and paranoia. It also gives a full and detailed treatment of topics rather than the brief descriptions that make other philosophical dictionaries less useful. Extended treatment is given in particular to Ethics, Logic, Aesthetics, Philosophy of Religion, Mental Pathology, Anthropology, Biology, Neurology, Physiology, Economics, Political and Social Philosophy, Philology, Physical Science (and Mathematics), and Education. French, German and Italian equivalents are often suggested for entries to help towards universal terminology. There is a careful apparatus of cross-reference and many helpful illustrations.

The result is a reference work unrivalled in scope, that collects the writings of some of the most influential thinkers of the start of this century.

Aiming to fully present the terminology and concepts of philosophy, psychology and science, this two-volume book is a composite of dictionary and encyclopedia, made up of vocabularies, definitions of terms, essays and articles. The author engaged such scholars as: Bernard Bosanquet; John Dewey; William James; C.S. Pierce; and Henry Sidgwick. The "Dictionary" has a wide scope, including entries on topics as diverse as anthropology, money, anaesthesia, peace, night-blindness, nihilism, and paranoia. It also gives a detailed treatment of topics, including extended treatment of ethics, logic, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, mental pathology, anthropology, biology, neurology, physiology, economics, political and social philosophy, philology, physical science (and mathematics), and education. French, German and Italian equivalents are often suggested for entries to help towards universal terminology. Cross-references and an index of Greek, Latin, German, French and Italian terms are also included.


Dictionary of Concepts in the Philosophy of Science: by Paul T. Durbin (Reference Sources for the Social Sciences and Humanities: Greenwood Press) includes about 100 terms from the natural and social sciences. For each term there is an extended definition and discussion of related philosophic issues. Each entry, about three and one-half pages, also provides a bibliography of some six to a dozen sources. A thorough index includes all terms and people discussed in the entries. This is an excellent source for an entree to the scholarly literature on basic topics such as chance, gender, history, indeterminism, instrumentalism, paradigm, scientific method, and vitalism." Choice



Dictionary of Cognitive Sciences: Neuroscience, Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, and Philosophy by Olivier Houde, Daniel Kayser, Olivier Koenig, Joelle Proust, Francois Bastier (Psychology Press) A translation of the renowned French reference book, Vocabulaire de sciences cognitives, the Dictionary of Cognitive Science presents comprehensive definitions of more than 120 terms. Translated into English by Vivian Waltz.

This resource text for students, professors, and researchers represents the combined efforts of 60-some specialists from France, Switzerland, the U.S., and Belgium. The text clearly and concisely describes the key concepts of the five core disciplines of cognitive science, with enough detail to assist readers in their collaboration with colleagues in the other disciplines. The entries are usually encyclopedic, presenting multiple approaches and models, with cross- references to other relevant notions and entries. Each entry is broken down into as many of five sections, depending on the number of disciplines to which it is applicable.
The editor and advisory board of specialists have brought together 60 internationally recognized scholars to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of the most current and dynamic thinking in the cognitive sciences. Topics range from Abduction to Writing, and each entry covers its subject from as many perspectives as possible within the domains of psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. This multidisciplinary work is an invaluable resource for all collections.

RANDOM HOUSE WEBSTER'S WORD MENU by Stephen Glazier ($25.00, paperback, 800 pages, Random House Reference, ISBN: 0375700838) MASSMARKET PAPERBACK

This is an essential reference work for all writers. Its utility and versatility will make it a major resource for building a general word-stock and for investigating the vocabularies of specialized fields of knowledge.

The explosion of knowledge and information in the second half of the twentieth century has been the catalyst of enormous social and technological changes. Since language is an ever evolving reflection of these changes, lexicons too should reflect them. Yet until now the most recent classification system for language is Roget’s thesaurus, published in 1852.

Not only has the English language evolved to keep pace with new technology and cultural growth, but the way we think has changed as well. Our approach to work and learning in the high speed age of the computer cannot always accommodate the more patient, intellectual approach of the past. There are times when we want our information quickly, in bite size chunks, and times when we cannot afford the luxury of searching through disparate sources to find the information we need. The average person today is forced to be a narrow specialist, with only a smattering of knowledge about other subjects, which are often difficult and unfamiliar. Making sense of our complex existence is a daunting task.

In keeping with this task, the Random House Webster’s Word Menu conceived and created by the late Stephen Glazier and produced over a period of eight years, presents an entirely new classification system for language and information Its goal is to help bring the expanding, multilayered world of the late twentieth century into clearer focus by creating a framework for ordering the mass of information that is constantly bombarding us. This framework is in the form of a structure that allows users to find information with ease in any of hundreds of different subjects and areas of interest.

A hierarchical structure is familiar to most users of the standard thesaurus: it goes from the general to the specific, from the idea or subject to particular words, from the whole to the parts. But whereas the structure of the standard thesaurus is based on philosophical categories such as "Abstract Relations" "Space," "Matter," and "Volition" the structure of this book is but on natural, contemporary categories and logical relations among not just concepts, but things. Thus the seven major classes in our structure are everyday subjects: Nature, Science and Technology, Domestic Life, Institutions, Arts and Leisure, Language, and the Human Condition.
Nature as a Body, Living Things, and The Earth.
The Earth, in turn, is broken down into five categories: Geology; Geography; Minerals, Metals, and Rocks; Landscapes and Seascapes, and Weather and Natural Phenomena.
Each of these categories is then divided into subcategories, such as under Landscapes and Seascapes: Hills, Hollows, and Valleys; Plains and Marshes, Woods and Brush; Inland Waterways and Lakes; and Coastal Land, Islands, and the Sea.

Another important difference between this book and the standard thesaurus is that while the latter deals with common synonyms and antonyms, this book is concerned with words related by subject i.e., with the vocabulary or terminology of hundreds of different areas of knowledge or activity. While the editors include under certain categories numerous synonyms and antonyms, these are subordinate to the purpose of this book, which is to provide information about words in a manner that is not found in any standard thesaurus or dictionary.
For example this book contains much information that is usually found in encyclopedias and almanacs, such as the Nations of the World, each with its capital, area in square miles, population number, language, major religion, and currency; the names and descriptions of all the Christian denominations and sects; major world cities; States of the United States; annual national and religious holidays; military ranks; names and functions of government departments; list of common abbreviations; and so on.

Finally, this work differs from the standard thesaurus because it discriminates among its entries with far greater precision, offering definitions of the words it identifies.

The author did not intend this work to replace the usual thesaurus or dictionary. Like a dictionary, it includes thousands of definitions, but it is not a general dictionary The Random House Webster’s Word Menu is quite different from either a dictionary or a thesaurus, and it is precisely this unique quality that makes it so useful as a companion to these standard references.

The book is designed to be a language tool as well as a creativity tool. As a language tool, it serves the functions of: a reverse dictionary, for finding a word when one knows only the meaning or definition; a thesaurus of related terms, organized by category or subject matter and with entries defined in a dictionary: a collection of diverse glossaries, for learning the terminology of an unfamiliar field or for learning to use technical terms correctly.

As a creativity tool, the books logical structure and word associations can assist in brainstorming, aid in preliminary research help overcome creative blocks or memory lapses, and provide a source of words for enlivening everything one writes. We hope that users will also browse through the pages to expand their knowledge and vocabulary as well as for entertainment.

Stephen Glazier created this book as a reference tool for busy writers like himself. All the organizing and defining of terms is done for them. The internal logic and easy associations of the classification system allow them to know instantly where to look for an unknown word in one of the nearly 800 categories and subcategories. The range of subjects, the concise, telegraphic definitions, and the contemporary format offer not only a resource for serious writers but a natural way to build vocabulary, help to solve crossword puzzles or to win at word games, or add vigor and variety to any piece of writing.

PART ONE: Nature, The Human Body, Living Things, The Earth
PART TWO: Science and Technology, The Sciences, Technology, Transportation
PART THREE: Domestic Life, The Home, The Family, Eating, Clothing
PART FOUR: Institutions, Social Order, The Economy, Social Sciences
PART FIVE: Arts and Leisure, Fine Arts and Leisure, Performing Arts, Applied Arts, Leisure and Recreation
PART SIX: Language Structure and Usage, Action and Sense Words, Common Expressions, Foreign Expressions
PART SEVEN: The Human Condition, Character and Behavior, Cognition, The Dark Side, Faith


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