Jungian Psychoanalysis: Working in the Spirit of Carl Jung by Murray Stein (Open Court) Written by 40 of the most notable Jungian psychoanalysts — spanning 11 countries, and boasting decades of study and expertise — Jungian Psychoanalysis represents the pinnacle of Jungian thought. This handbook brings up to date the perspectives in the field of clinically applied analytical psychology, centering on five areas of interest: the fundamental goals of Jungian psychoanalysis, the methods of treatment used in pursuit of these goals, reflections on the analytic process, the training of future analysts, and special issues, such as working with trauma victims, handicapped patients, or children and adolescents, and emergent religious and spiritual issues. Discussing not only the history of Jungian analysis but its present and future applications, this book marks a major contribution to the worldwide study of psychoanalysis.
An apocryphal story, but one that says a lot.
Jung differentiated himself from Freud and Adler, two other pioneers of psychoanalysis, and founded a distinctive branch of depth psychology (or medical psychology, as it was called in the early days) called analytical psychology. This school's physical and spiritual home was Zurich, Switzerland. The theoretical and clinical points of difference among the three founding figures, especially the differences between Jung and Freud, have been widely discussed in many publications and biographies. Here I will only remark that in the first and second generations Jungians marked the lines separating themselves from the others with broad pen and heavy ink as the differences in fundamental perspectives and practices were emphasized in order to differentiate the field from its surrounding milieu. More recently the emphasis among contemporary Jungian authors has shifted to perspectives of convergence and dialogue. This may be taken as a sign of maturation in the field. There is less anxiety about identity.
The clinical practitioners in the school that took form around Jung have variously called themselves analytical psychologists, Jungian analysts, and Jungian psychotherapists. In more recent years they have increasingly recognized their historic, if not untroubled, kinship with the greater family of psychoanalysis and have taken to naming themselves Jungian psychoanalysts. Hence the title of this book.
Jungian psychoanalysis is the contemporary name for the clinical application of analytical psychology.
From the very beginning, the people who surrounded Jung and assisted in the development of the school he founded in Zurich came from many parts of the world. A strong international presence therefore has characterized analytical psychology from the outset and continues so to this day. In addition, the people who
first took up the practice of analytical psychology were by no means all medically trained. As a consequence, so-called lay analysis was part of the professional make-up of the school throughout its history, and in recent years the large majority of Jungian psychoanalysts have nonmedical backgrounds. Jung himself, while originally educated as a psychiatrist, had interests so broad that he soon saw the limitations of confining the practice of analysis to medical professionals. Collaboration among a multitude of disciplines has been a part of the theory and practice of analytical psychology throughout its history. This spirit continues to be strongly in evidence today.
The articles in the present volume reflect the changes that have taken place in the field during the past decade and a half and after the passing of the second generation, many of whom had known and worked with Jung personally in the 1930s and 1940s. As a statement from the field, this book is, I believe, quite fully representative of the many strands of thought and of the rich diversity of approaches and thinking that today constitute the complex tapestry of Jungian analytical writing and thinking. The reader will find a prevailing interweave, perhaps today approaching the point of seamless integration, of the well known classical, developmental, and archetypal branches of analytical psychology as well as of an impressive array of borrowings from modern psychoanalytic thinkers beyond the boundaries of analytical psychology whose ideas and insights are by no means inspired by Jungian sources but whose views are increasingly regarded as convergent and compatible.
Nevertheless, at the center of contemporary Jungian psychoanalytic thinking there remains, as ever, the towering figure of C.G. Jung. His published works, however variously construed they may be by later authors, continue to occupy the privileged position of key reference point. The twenty volumes of Jung's Collected Works, along with the several published volumes of letters, the now well edited and published seminars that he gave in Zurich and abroad, and several other collections of incidental writings form the accepted foundation for theorizing and reflecting on Jungian practice. Jung's seminal intuition of the psyche as evolving, changing, and goal-seeking—in other words, individuating—remains the core perception around which everything else is constructed. It was his long and careful articulation of the unconscious as purposive and of the total psyche as oriented by the self, which guides and governs the lived processes of psychological life, that constitutes the key inspiration behind the work of the thousands (by now) of writings by most other thinkers in this field.
These ideas continue to guide recent contributions to Jungian psychoanalytic thought as much as they did the first two generations of Jungians, and they are plainly in evidence in the articles of this volume. Jung's view of the psyche is that it is not fundamentally flawed and pathological (that is, destined to play out an invariably tragic story) but rather oriented toward lifelong development that may or may not be only partially or relatively fully realized. By no means does this mean that psychopathology is ignored. As many of the articles in this volume will amply testify, pathology no doubt corrupts and interrupts the processes of indi viduation at all stages of life, but the psyche seeks to overcome its illnesses in various ways, and this individuating self is what the Jungian psychoanalyst looks for, allies with, and uses to foster and encourage the processes of change and growth in consciousness. The analyst tries to follow and facilitate a natural emergence of the self in the psyche rather than imposing a program for improvement in ego functioning or surgically removing pathological structures through incisive interpretations. Generally, Jungian psychoanalysis is seen as a collaborative effort at reflection, and dialogue rather than one-sided dogmatic interpretation is the rule.
To work "in the spirit of Jung" means, if anything, to work with the whole self in mind. As this gets spelled out in this volume, the reader will see that this has principally to do with engagement in a dialectical play between conscious and unconscious and between the two persons taking part in the analytic process. Gradually this dialectic builds toward a sense of wholeness in personal and archetypal terms. The end result of a Jungian psychoanalysis—granting for the moment the possibility of "success" in this endeavor—is not principally "better functioning" or "improved coping skills," nor is it a greater emotional sense of wellbeing, happiness, or self-worth, although these are certainly worthy by-products not to be discounted. The primary sought-for result is awareness of personal life patterns of coherence and direction that are rooted deeply in the psyche as a whole, that is, in the self. One gains as well a wide perspective on how one belongs to one's personal, cultural, and historical context. Personal and cultural complexes and archetypal images rise to the surface of consciousness and merge with ego consciousness to form an image of self that is much greater than it had been before analysis began.
How is this type of consciousness brought into being? Jungian psychoanalysts employ a number of methods that are aimed toward accomplishing this result, as the reader will discover in many of the articles. The sought-after change agent that must be introduced into the psychic matrix is implied in the notion of "coming into contact with the unconscious" or "developing a transcendent function," phrases that are familiar in traditional Jungian literature and that are embedded in many of the articles in this volume as well. The point is not to create a permanent state of all-inclusive consciousness in the individual undertaking analysis, but to catch glimpses of something like that and to develop the freedom to think and feel in the most inclusive and imaginative ways possible. This means working through fears, inhibitions, and defenses of all kinds, especially the unconscious primitive forms. It calls for passing through painful memories and realizations about oneself and others and digesting the bitterness of such recollections and insights. The analyst presses for developing the capacity to see oneself from behind, as it were, to overhear oneself as though one were an interlocutor to oneself, and to offer a welcoming hand to new ideas, images, and self-representations, whatever they may be, as they emerge in the course of analysis.
The methods for bringing about this type of consciousness are designed to open up the mind and to interpret what one finds there. In Jungian psychoanalysis, this exploration takes place in the space created between two persons who are dedicated to the exploration of psychic reality. The analyst may follow several routes for delving into the hidden world of the unconscious (dreams, fantasies, active imagination, complex discharges, transference) and additionally several methods for gathering these insights and fixing them in memory and consciousness (interpretation, sandplay, art-making, body movement). The intention is to build up an identity based on the whole self. The technical term for this expanded image is the transcendent function.
What about infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood? Freudians have traditionally focused heavily on these early stages of life, while Jungians have been more known for addressing issues pertaining to the second half of life. As the reader of these articles will find, however, Jungian psychoanalysts today pay a surprising amount of attention to early development as well. Individuation in the second half of life, which follows a circular rather than a linear path, is heavily dependent on successful passages through the developmental phases in the first half. From a Jungian perspective, the early stages are preparatory for the later, and a major reason for working analytically and therapeutically with children, adolescents, and young adults is to maximize their chances for gaining maturity later on. The pathologies engendered by early trauma, by insufficient bonding and attachment, and by failure of separation from parents and family of origin all lead to a second half of life that is stagnant, defensive, and threatened by steady decline of resourcefulness, resiliency, and creativity. If the fruits of maturity and individuation are greater consciousness and deeper compassion toward oneself and others—in short, wisdom and transcendence—the failure to individuate results in resentment, isolation, and spiritual poverty.
Most Jungian psychoanalysts in practice today are people well advanced into the second half of life. I have not conducted a careful survey, but from my years a president of the International Association for Analytical Psychology I know a great number of them in many parts of the world, and I would estimate their average age today to be in the mid-to-late fifties. They are people who are, if not invariably wise, at least in possession of a good deal of life experience and careful training in the art and craft of analysis. My impression is that for the most part they are dedicated to continuing their personal work toward individuation and honing their skills as professional analysts. At the same time, I do not underestimate the potential for shadow enactments well into old age. Professional societies of analysts have assumed the obligation for watching over their members where ethics are concerned, and many societies are finding it wise to institute requirements for ongoing supervision (or intervision) and continuing education for all of their members no matter how senior. A number of articles cover these matters.
The authors included in this volume have been trained and work in a wide variety of cultural settings. This assembly of voices is international and speaks from six continents. The book reflects the international character of Jungian psychoanalysis and its many perspectives. As Thomas Kirsch explains in the foreword, the field of analytical psychology has expanded considerably from its origins in Switzerland. Jungian psychoanalysts are active today in all the coun tries of Western Europe and also now in many countries of Eastern Europe as well; throughout the Americas; also in Australia, Asia, and Africa. At the present time, they play a significant role in mental health professions worldwide and increasingly teach in academic institutions. In recent years, Jungians have also taken up extensive consideration of modern developments in other psychoanalytic schools and of contemporary scientific research. What the articles in this volume demonstrate is that these assimilations from outside the field of analytical psychology have enriched but not overshadowed the core ideas and perspectives that Jung expounded in his voluminous writings. If anything, the work of Jung looms larger today than it did forty years ago, in large part because so many of the recent developments in the fields of modem psychoanalysis and neuroscience appear to be affirming and supporting the key principles that he put forward in the first half of the twentieth century.
When I invited the authors in this volume to make their specific contributions, I encouraged them to speak in their own voices, to express their own thinking and feeling as it applies to the topics they are writing about, and to be courageous and creative in expanding upon their own particular visions and convictions. The result, I am happy to say, is a lively collection of distinctive essays rather than a dry textbook of received opinion and references. It might be too much to claim that this is the authoritative text in the field of Jungian psychoanalysis at this time, but it is doubtless as close to such as one will find. I hope the reader will find the essays contained here, singly and as a conglomerate, informative and stimulating.
It is difficult to speak about the goals of analysis in a general and all encompassing way. Each case is different and calls for specific considerations. The Jungian psychoanalyst is trained to look at each analysand as an individual with a unique history and quite specific challenges. The outcome of analysis is therefore in each case different and treatment must be tailored to the individual. One size does not fit all. That said, however, there are some general perspectives that apply to many if not all cases, just as in medicine there are no two cases alike and yet treatment of a heart condition in one case is not so different from treatment in a similar case. Some generalizations can be made as long as one keeps in mind the special uniqueness of each individual soul.
The chapters in this section are principally designed around a model offered by Jung in a paper entitled "Problems of Modern Psychotherapy" (in CW 16), where he outlined four stages of psychotherapeutic treatment: confession, elucidation, education, and transformation. Stanton Marlan's chapter, "Facing the Shadow," takes up the first of these and expands on the concept of confession as a matter of raising the shadow figures and energies of the psyche into consciousness and integrating them. Patricia Vesey-McGrew unpacks the meaning of elucidation in her chapter, "Getting on Top of Thought and Behavior Patterns." This extends the range of consciousness from shadow content and dynamics to emotional and behavioral patterns in general, in order to form a grasp on the personal complexes that control these patterns unconsciously. Thomas Singer, in the chapter he writes with Catherine Kaplinsky entitled "The Cultural Complex in Analysis," lays out the theory of cultural complexes and thereby deepens and broadens the discussion of raising the operation of complexes into consciousness to include content derived from the analysand's cultural background. The goal of analysis, as it is conceptualized in these articles, is to step out of the bipolar dynamics of the autonomous complexes in order to clear consciousness and free a person from the automatic emotional responses engendered by them.
Josephine Evetts-Secker follows up on these reflections with a chapter on "Initiating a Psychological Education" in analysis. This is a cognitive piece in Jungian psychoanalysis, having the objective of helping the analysand to gain a personal understanding about psychological functioning. In the long run, a full Jungian psychoanalysis is very much an educational experience. The more an analysand understands the dreams, fantasies, thoughts, emotional reactions, and interpersonal dynamics that make up the bulk of psychological life, the better chance there is to form an individual and satisfying attitude toward life in general as it continues during and after analysis.
The most defining goal of Jungian psychoanalysis has traditionally been discussed as transformation of the personality. This means a deeper than merely cognitive change in the analysand's attitudes toward self, others, and the world. Diane Cousineau Brutsche engages this topic in her chapter, "Instigating Transformation," and Joseph Cambray continues the theme in his article, "Emergence and the Self." Jung's main contribution to the psychoanalytic tradition as a whole, it could be said, revolves around his understanding of transformation. These two articles offer a contemporary account of it.
Taken together, the chapters in this section express both the variety and the coherence of how Jungian psychoanalysts reflect upon the goals of analytic treatment today. They weave and blend both traditional and contemporary Jungian perspectives as well as much assimilation from other schools of modern psychoanalysis.
Jung was famous for disdaining the notion of "technique" in analysis. It was anathema for him because he feared an emphasis "on how to do it" would create mechanical imitators who would miss the individuality of the person coming for treatment. He was convinced that the most important thing an analyst has to offer is an open and receptive mind, and if technique gets in the way of this it is far better to set it aside and sit with a person without knowing what to do or how to do it. In a sense, the articles in this section contradict Jung's outspoken criticism of method and technique in analysis, but it is only a seeming contradiction and not a real one. As the articles all make clear, no one is in favor of technique over personal presence. The methods, tools, and techniques spoken of in this section are of value if handled properly, which means not "mechanically" and inflexibly but with respect for the uniqueness of each individual soul who comes into analysis.
John Beebe, arguably the world's leading contemporary Jungian spokesperson and theoretician of psychological type, discusses the great value of assessing type as one works with analysands. Type theory is a tool that actually guarantees more individual treatment than might otherwise be possible, precisely because it presupposes that people are different and that one size shoe does not fit all feet. Jan Wiener, equally an authority on transference in the Jungian world today, discusses Jung's expressed ambivalence about the use of transference as a tool in analysis and shows how an understanding of transference, in Jung's own terms, can be critically important for promoting growth of consciousness and individuation in analysis.
Jung's own preferred method for working in analysis was dream interpretation. Warren Colman, in his chapter "Dream Interpretation the Creation of Symbolic Meaning," shows how Jung's approach differed from Freud's and how the modern Jungian psychoanalyst employs dream interpretation centrally and importantly today. The traditional as well contemporary form of dream interpretation in Jungian work is collaborative. Meanings are not imposed or handed down by an authoritative analyst. They are the product of dialogue and exchange within the creative matrix of the analytic setting. John Hill, in "Amplification, Unveiling Emergent Patterns of Meaning," discusses the analyst's important contribution to this dialogue. The method of amplification was specifically designed by Jung to expand the meaning of dreams and other material from the unconscious to include collective in addition to personal references.
In addition to working with dreams, active imagination was a preferred method employed by Jung for coming into contact with the unconscious. Sherry Salman, in her chapter "Peregrinations of Active Imagination," connects this traditional Jungian method with contemporary discussions on Jungian psychoanalysis and postmodern perspectives and reviews traditional and contemporary forms of using this technique in analysis. A somewhat neglected instrument among Jungian psychoanalysts in recent decades, active imagination is again being highlighted by a new generation as an indispensable technique for working analytically in depth. Mary Dougherty ( "On Making and Making Use of Images in Analysis"), Eva Patis ("Sand Play"), and Cedrus Monte ("The Body and Movement in Analysis") extend the discussion of active imagination by introducing specific further techniques that have been developed by themselves and other Jungian psychoanalysts to elaborate the potential of active imagination in various modes.
With all of these methods, instruments, and techniques, the intent is to create a dialectical process between consciousness and the unconscious that will release creative energies and build up a stable psychic structure that is maximally representative of the whole personality. In the wrong hands, of course, they can become straitjackets and be more poisonous than healing. The skilled Jungian psychoanalyst will presumably know when and how to use them, and when to put them aside.
In his late writings, Jung's preferred metaphor for discussing the analytic process was the alchemical opus, as evidenced in his use of the alchemical text, Rosarium Philosophorum, in the major work "On the psychology of the transference" (CW 16). With this trope he meant to communicate a manifold of possibilities for transformation inherent in the enterprise of analysis. In the analytic process, he argued, both reductive and synthetic movements run in tandem, the one deconstructing a fixed and one-sided conscious position and identity, the other building up a new conscious set of attitudes, images, and identities grounded in a union of conscious and emergent unconscious elements. How contemporary Jungian psychoanalysts work to bring about the conditions that will generate these results is the subject of discussion in this section.
The reflection begins with Paul Ashton's evocative and poetic chapter, "Beginnings and Endings." The formal analytic process has a start and a finish, although as Ashton makes explicit the beginning and end are not so clear-cut when one considers the broader context of a lifelong individuation process. Kazuhiko Higuchi picks up on this theme of boundaries in his reflection on analysis in Japanese culture, which is famous for its indirect style of communication.
All contemporary Jungian psychoanalysts subscribe to the importance of establishing a tight and solid analytic "container" in which to practice the analytic opus. In alchemical parlance, this is referred to as a vas bene clausum ("a well-sealed vessel"). August Cwik writes insightfully about the nature of this essential structure in the chapter, "From Frame through Holding to Container." The vas is a kind of womb, the place of growth where a new type of consciousness can be nourished and out of which it can eventually emerge and become viable and independent.
The process that takes place within the vessel of analysis was indelibly named by a patient of Freud's when she called it a "talking cure," and so it has remained to a large extent in Jungian work, though with some modifications and extensions as the chapters by Dougherty, Pattis, and Monte in the previous section show. A chief difference between the classical Freudian and Jungian forms of the talking cure was that in the former the talking was done almost exclusively by the patient, whereas in the latter talking took the form of an active dialogue between two people, analyst and analysand. The work of transformation in Jungian psychoanalysis is collaborative, akin to what is illustrated so often in alchemical pictures that show the alchemist working with a soror mystica in the laboratory or two figures in a bath, and so forth. Claus Braun and Lilian Otscheret in their chapter, "Dialogue," discuss three paradigmatic models of dialogue that characterize various schools and eras and argue that Jung's own stated model is close to the contemporary view of intersubjectivists.
At the heart of the analytic process is, of course, the relationship that develops between analyst and analysand. Jean Knox employs her extensive study of attachment theory in early infancy and childhood to discuss the profound connections that develop between the two protagonists in the analytic drama in the chapter, "The Analytic Relationship." Linda Carter continues this discussion in "Countertransference and Intersubjectivity," and she adds further insights from contemporary science and psychoanalysis to the Jungian perspective on the role that the analyst's psyche plays in the process of change and transformation within the analytic container.
To the views expressed in several of the foregoing chapters Angela Connolly poses some critical questions, which deepen the reflection on how analysts can effectively stimulate change in the psyches of their analysands. Her chapter, "Analyzing Projections, Fantasies, and Defenses," highlights the importance of maintaining a degree of objectivity and analytic distance even within the intimate intersubjective field generated in analysis.
One of the perennial perplexities of the analytical relationship circles around the perceived presence of gender, which is the theme of Joy Schaverien's reflection in "Gender and Sexuality: Imaginal, Erotic Encounters." As Schaverien picks up on the theme of gender and its implications for sexuality within the alchemical field constellated by the analytic dyad, so Birgit Heuer introduces a topic that might be considered its polar opposite in the chapter, "The Experience of the Numinous in the Consulting Room." Between the two chapters one might discern the historic tension that arcs between a traditional psychoanalytic emphasis on instinct on the one hand and a classical Jungian emphasis on spirit on the other. In his late theoretical work, "On the Nature of the Psyche" (CW 8), Jung describes this arc as a rainbow with one end of the spectrum merging with the body and the other disappearing into pure spirit. Both of these authors recognize the profound links between sexuality and spirituality and demonstrate how contemporary Jungian psychoanalysts work in these highly charged energy fields.
Lest we forget that analysis and psychotherapy take place within specific cultural settings, Kazuhiko Higuchi's chapter, "Jungian Psychoanalysis in the Context of Japanese Culture," reminds us that to work with the psyche of individuals deeply implies also encountering and engaging cultural habits and expectations. His fascinating article tells of how a method of analysis originating in a central European cultural context has been taken up and subtly transformed in the very specific and traditional Eastern cultural context of Japan.
It is not widely known that Jung's lectures at Clark University in 1909, when he and Sigmund Freud traveled there together, included a case report on the treatment of a three- or four-year old child suffering from a neurosis. This is one of the earliest reports on child analysis in psychoanalytic literature. Later Jung would famously say that he took little interest personally in early development and left that to the Freudians, and yet a number of his followers were actually well known child analysts, most importantly Michael Fordham. Erich Neumann, too, wrote an important work on early childhood development, The Child. In this section, Brigitte Allain-Dupré in her chapter "The Child's Side," presents the history and contemporary standing of child analysis among Jungian psychoanalysts. Gustav Bovensiepen, a much published author and international lecturer, offers a Jungian perspective on working analytically with a broad spectrum of adolescent patients.
Donald Kalsched, in his chapter, "Working with Trauma in Analysis," continues the discussion of unresolved early developmental issues and conflicts as they arise in the analysis of adults. Katrin Asper follows with her chapter "Psychotherapy and Congenital Physical Disability," which shows the early psychological traumatic roots of the suffering faced by analysands who were born with physical disabilities. Both of these articles illustrate ways in which contemporary Jungian psychoanalysts work with psychological problems and suffering that derive from early wounds, deficits, and damage to self esteem and functional capacities.
The relation between the psyche and the body is taken up further by Margaret Wilkinson in "Psyche and Brain," while Axel Capriles focuses on the psychosomatics and teleology of passion in "The Passions: Tactics of the Soul." These chapters represent two sides of a single coin, the endlessly fascinating and intriguing human psyche.
To speak of passion immediately raises the question of ethics: how should one conduct oneself in the midst of the passionate engagement with another that analysis often becomes? For the Jungian psychoanalyst this is a continuous concern since the work is conducted in emotional territories that are never easy to judge and often difficult to estimate and control. Hester Solomon, whose work on ethics and the self has received wide attention in the Jungian community, brings ethical considerations to bear on the conduct of analysis in her chapter "The Ethical Attitude in Analytical Practice." John Dourley, whose provocative books on a depth-psychological understanding of monotheistic theologies have found a wide readership, continues with a reflection on religion and psychological maturity in his chapter "Religion and Jungian Psychoanalysis."
Like all other forms of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis, Jungian psychoanalysis has been confronted with a demand to prove its value as a mode of treatment in the contemporary world. Jung's early laboratory research on the psyche, which resulted in the highly popular and clinically useful concept of the "complex," laid the groundwork for later Jungian research on a variety of topics, including most recently therapy outcome studies. Verena Kast, a leading Jungian exponent of the need for more research in the field of analytical psychology, provides the historical background of research in analytical psychology as well as a persuasive argument on the need for more and continuing efforts along these lines.
Finally, Helen Morgan presents a new application of dream work in her exposition, "The Social Dreaming Matrix." Building on the work of W. Gordon Lawrence at the Tavistock Clinic in London, Morgan and others have adapted the social dreaming matrix to Jungian understandings of the permeable psyche and social interconnectedness. This chapter, which concludes the section on Special Topics, considers the psyche's response in wider social settings and contexts.
The training of the next generation of Jungian psychoanalysts is a concern for all professional Jungian groups and one that occupies a good deal of time and attention in all Jungian societies. In most societies, it is the central and most labor intensive activity undertaken by the membership. Worldwide there are several variations on the basic model of training, as Ann Casement's research shows in her chapter on "Training Programs." Casement also compares the Jungian trainings of the IAAP to the three models in the International Psychoanalytic Association. The basic structure of Jungian training, which descends from the psychoanalytic model designed originally by Karl Abraham and his Freudian colleagues in Berlin in the 1920s, revolves around three basic elements: didactic seminars, personal analysis, and supervision of analytic cases. How the requirements are organized and distributed varies from country to country and training institute to institute. Nevertheless, all these requirements are covered in one fashion or another.
The most fundamental feature of Jungian training has been, since Jung himself was in charge of what passed as training in Zurich before WWII, the personal training analysis. Dyane Sherwood in her chapter "Training Analysis" gives a highly personal account of what it is like to endure the trials of undergoing analysis while passing through the rigors of a training program. Catherine Crowther discusses the current understanding of supervision and the delicate role the supervisor of analytic cases plays within the context of the training program. Both articles vividly depict the intricacies and complications of these aspects of training.
In the end, the hoped for product of training is a mature personality and a competent Jungian psychoanalyst who is a lifelong learner.
On Behalf of the Mystical Fool: Jung on the Religious Situation
by John P. Dourley
(Routledge) Jung's explanation of the religious tendency of the psyche
addresses many sides of the contemporary debate on religion and the
role that it has in individual and social life. This book discusses
the emergence of a new mythic consciousness and details ways in
which this consciousness supersedes traditional concepts of religion
to provide a spirituality of more universal inclusion.
On Behalf of the Mystical Fool examines Jung's critique of traditional western religion, demonstrating the negative consequences of religious and political collective unconsciousness, and their consequent social irresponsibility in today's culture. The book concludes by suggesting that a new religiosity and spirituality is currently emerging in the West based on the individual’s access to the sense of ultimacy residual in the psyche, and seeking expression in a myth of a much wider compass.
This book will be of interest to scholars and students at all levels who are engaged in the expanding field of Jungian studies. It will also be key reading for anyone interested in the theoretical and therapeutic connections between the psyche and religious experience.
Excerpt: In 1936-1937 Carl Jung conjured up a prophet who, thirty years earlier, would have foreseen the face of then current Europe with its "medieval persecutions of the Jews", with its collective submission to militant fascism and restored Roman salute, and with its homage to the swastika as the representation collectif replacing the Christian cross but imbuing its followers with the same fidelity onto death. Jung rightly suspects that such a visionary thirty years before his time would have been "hooted at" by his contemporaries as a "mystical fool" (Jung 19681: 48).
And what similar horrors might the mystical fool see in today's world? The three variants of monotheism, each proclaiming an objective God of universal and privileged truth and claim, provoke the same hostility and loss of life among their competing communities that has characterized their interface from almost the outset. Under stress from each other and from social forces such as a morally superior secularity, they turn to their founding scriptures as literal and historical accounts of their being the chosen. In doing so they lose the sense of the religiously poetic, the symbolic and the mythic, for a literal sense of the transcendent who so favors them in history. The resultant and now spreading fundamentalism coarsens the human spirit by reducing it to the more superficial levels of human consciousness. It removes humanity from its own depths to external accounts of past divine exploits in history rather than leading the human into the profundities from which both humanity, its history and the deities derive. Such fundamentalism, even in its more sophisticated theological exponents, lies at the insuperable tension between individuals and communities bonded by their one and only Gods or even by families of Gods in the world's polytheistic persuasions. The situation now drives scholars more insistently to identify the links between religion and violence in the past and present. More than fifty years later, no in-depth psychological or theological analysis of the holocaust has surfaced adequate to its religious enormity. The mind seems incapable of grasping intellectually and facing historically the "absolute evil" that Jung identified as resident to the human psyche (Jung 1968n: 10). Indeed the enormity continues with the atrocities of 9/11, and the response to it. "Ethnic cleansing" has become a new phrase describing the lethal interaction of religiously and ethnically based communities. The grim irony of the Balkans rests in the fact that the dissolution of a "secular/political" religion served as the occasion of the ensuing slaughter among religiously based ethnic communities.
In continuity with these observations, geopoliticians have come to locate the religious foundations of the world's civilizations in their supporting religions now themselves perceived as the root of the tensions between civilizational groupings. In the current and future "clash of civilizations" all wars become religious wars. Politically the most powerful democracy in the world has been reduced to a theocracy by a leader inspired by God in the justification of two current wars whose real motivation is now widely perceived to be questionably divine in origin. By and large the religious leaders of the civilizations engaged in them have not condemned the waging of these wars. Where there has been criticism it is sotto voce, though ringing condemnations of other moral violations — sexual indiscretion and social injustice being widely favored — continue to bellow forth from such sources frequently unable or unwilling to remove such iniquity from their own communities.
In the ecological sphere a mind severed from its own depths and so from its continuity with nature, often through religious conceptions of a dubious "transcendence", continues to ravage the natural world that, through evolution, brought the mind into existence and seeks to sustain it in existence now through a human community reflecting the process of organic complexity evident in the making of the human brain. Should the human project somehow avoid elimination through faith based conflict, political and/or religious, the rape of nature threatens her generosity and with it the long term survival of the species.
And so the mystical fool would have much to ponder in today's world. As the creator of the mystical fool and as one himself, the senior Jung was of the opinion that the species would have to seek its joint salvation in a "symbolic death" if it was to avoid a literal one in a "universal genocide" (Jung 1976d: 735). By a symbolic death Jung would point to the emergence of a new symbolic sense, a new religious sense, which would enable the species to survive the congealed paralysis of its current religious, political and civilizational differentiations. Jung's understanding of the psyche is thus of an evolving living reality now seeking a wider sense of compassion or universal embrace than the current state of religious development, East or West, can easily provide.
The psyche's current movement toward a more encompassing consciousness is the object of this work. It seeks to identify this spirit underlying Jung's psychology and to show its social significance in the context of variants of the religious imagination with which he saw it incompatible. These incompatibilities serve to illustrate the wider and negative consequences of failure to attain a religious perspective at once deeper and more inclusive than the current religions can readily sponsor. To delineate the full compass of Jung's understanding of the religious propensities of the psyche the inquiry dwells on wider metaphysical and cosmological themes that make Jung's psychology unique. It details some of the far ranging consequences of his understanding of divinity and humanity as agencies wholly contained within the psyche engaged in an eternal and ongoing reciprocity of mutual redemption. Finally it appeals to Jung's sense of radical interiority as the key to revisioning the divine/human commerce through the portals of the depths native and natural to humanity. The work concludes by turning to the mystics to whom Jung turned throughout his work, mystics who experienced these depths most intensely, some to the point of momentary dissolution in them. Their sense of the natural universality of the divine in whom they momentarily dissolved in an identity beyond distinction could today restore a living sense of God as the common universal ground of individual and of nature beyond the individual. The sense of the human and the natural as joint manifestations of an immanent divinity could serve as the basis of a sacred communality beyond discrete and transcendent Gods and their disparate communities. In the end the turn inward may evoke an ever widening universal embrace of the external. Such interiority could give rise to a symbolic birth on the other side of the current need for a symbolic death, a birth marking the survival and enrichment of consciousness in a restored resonance with its ground as the guarantor of the survival of the earth and the planet themselves.
Carl Jung's understanding of the religious propensity of the psyche, when understood and engaged, continues to address, to enrage and to confirm many sides of the contemporary discourse on religion and its role in individual and social life. Obviously the most important of these is the nature and state of religion itself, both in the predominantly Western monotheisms and throughout the world. On the one hand the very credibility of religion continues to diminish in the light of Western liberal secularity whose values inform a now emerging social myth of deeper religious sentiment and moral concern. The profundity and universalism of religious secularity threatens to supersede the more traditional orthodoxies unable to meet the religious needs of a developing humanity increasingly aware of its inner resources and their external deployment in the service of humanity. Democracies in varying hues tend to replace the theism and theocracy with which religion is more comfortable. Human rights base themselves on other than religious grounds such as the natural law purified of a religious referent. The ongoing contest for the separation of church and state and the increasing reluctance of most Western governments and leaders, with the notable exception of the United States, to use language derivative of any identifiable religion are examples of the emergence of an ethical and religious sense that surpasses a commitment to specific religions. In all of this a broader, deeper and more inclusive perspective obviates a narrower one.
Recent outbreaks of militant atheism attack as a dangerous infantilism the beliefs and practices of any of the various forms of theism understood as a biblically based relationship to a personal and wholly transcendent God. They rightly ask why religious tolerance should be extended to such unlikely viewpoints and certitudes when their connection with violence, not only among themselves but often toward surrounding cultures of greater tolerance, becomes increasingly apparent (Dawkins 2006: 301-308; Dennett 2006: 278-307; Harris 2006). Such atheism has no problem documenting the hatred addressed to those who question religious faith and the reality of God on which it is based. This questioning is most acute when religious faith supports political commitment and military aggression. The twenty-first century lives under the shadow of the holocaust with still sparse attention paid to aspects of the Christian revelation and history which provided, at least to some degree, the conditions of its possibility. Geopoliticians like Huntington now document the religious bases of conflicting civilizations. They more than imply that these religiously based cultures insure that present and future wars are and will be religious, whether fought under explicitly religious banners or disguised as deeper human, even secular, values such as human rights understood to be held by one combatant and not the other. War has been and continues to be a consistent historical reality in the interface of monotheistic communities, especially where One or Other of the One and Only Gods has vested a particular 11 community with a claim to land, most tragically in cases where two or more communities have divinely based claims on the same piece of geography.
On other fronts religion engages in its own self-discrediting in its ambiguous relationship to the gay community, to the concerns of feminism and to causes inspired by a higher concern for life and dignity such as the opposition to war, to capital punishment, and to state, or any, use of torture. Women are excluded from admission to the Roman Catholic hierarchy. 4, Priests are forbidden marriage. Homosexuality is described as an "objective disorder" when a significant proportion of the male Roman clergy are homosexual themselves. Possible connections between institutional excesses such as universally imposed celibacy and the widespread practice of pedophilia are consistently denied by ecclesial leadership without being examined in any depth. In the face of the undeniable shadow hanging over contemporary institutionalization of religion, West and East, the civilized mind now moves to the search for salvation from religion rather than through it. The situation raises the question of whether religion can be saved from the religions through a more immediate experience of the authentic power of religion at the personal level with the social consequences such experience may foster. Among such consequences would be a more inclusive universalism based on the now surfacing sense that religion in its wondrous variety derives from the depths of a commonly held humanity in the interest 41 of enhancing the humanity from whose womb it springs.
And yet, even in its present condition, religion flourishes. Fundamentalism thrives. Religious institutions continue to split between left and right. In most the right continues to prevail. In the face of a narrow but overwhelmingly conservative majority, liberal individuals and forces withdraw leaving the institutions bastions of a defensive but powerful regression frequently resting on an inherited revelation, the only true one, still to be imposed on others. In Roman Catholicism it took less than fifteen years to destroy the liberating spirit of Vatican II (1962-1965). More statements of rejection, caution or outright condemnation have proceeded from the Vatican since the ecumenical council than at any time since the condemnations of Catholic theological thought in the early twentieth century under the name of "Modernism".
Some of the experts at the Council itself, like Edward Schillebeeckx of the University of Nijmegen, Netherlands and Karl Rahner of Germany and Hans Kung of Switzerland, were subjected to scrutiny either by Rome or their more conservative colleagues. Marxist theologians in South America were wholly rejected. Politicians who were priests were forced to give up elected seats in democratic governments in Canada and the United States. Nor is the split between left and right confined to Catholicism though it is most obvious there. The Anglican tradition is split, as are many ecclesial bodies, on the issue of homosexuality in both the priestly caste and in the laity. In the United States, identifiable groups in conservative reformed communities known demographically as "Jesus land" voted the second Bush administration into power. This administration turned into a theocracy doing God's will in Iraq under the direction of a president in immediate touch with divinity. Needless to add that potential and actual violence in the Balkans and the Middle East owes its energies to religious division.
In the face of such startling evidence that the civilized mind sees so clearly the shadow side of religion and seeks to surpass its religious past, especially in the wake of the Western Enlightenment, only to be confronted with an intransigent and violent tribal religious barbarism, Jung's contention that the human psyche and so humanity itself are ineradicably religious is worth sustained examination. In his conviction of the permanence of religion, Jung joins such modern thinkers as Paul Tillich in the conviction that religion is endemic to human self-consciousness itself. The major option is then not to accept or reject religion but to determine how it can serve rather than destroy its constituencies and, by extension, the species itself. If this line of analysis proves valuable, Jung's psychology could identify the factors in the human psyche which ground humanity's religious instinct. Further it could identify the teleology of this instinct in individual and society. In this manner Jung's understanding of religion could both diagnose religious pathology and foster religion's legitimate contribution to human well being. More his understanding of religion would be able to identify religion when it is present and operative in ways that are not explicitly and obviously religious and frequently unseen by more superficial observers. Religion in such disguise would appear in the various forms of allegedly secular commitment in the form of political mass movements, past and present, movements themselves archetypally grounded and so driven by the same energies that drive religion.
The ineradicable nature of religion would thus serve as the presupposition for a reflection on religion's profound ambiguity. Its shadow would appear as among the greatest of current threats to human survival; its common root in the human psyche as one of humanity's potentially greatest resources. This line of reflection would respect the archetypal suasion that religion works on human consciousness, a suasion that so easily devolves into a threat to humanity when it claims a privileged and exhaustive possession of the truth. Such exclusivism would most obviously be the case with any group taking on the designation of "chosen" or its equivalent on the basis of a specific revelation from a sole wholly transcendent God. This side of Jung's thought would be profoundly iconoclastic in its reduction of such a claim to the status of a dangerous collective inflation and currently an anti-social and so immoral form of consciousness. Monotheistic faith in all religious and political variants would be increasingly perceived as immoral and socially irresponsible. Yet because Jung would understand the religions as expressions of the deepest, commonly possessed, and universal stratum of the human psyche, each monotheistic variant could be seen as treasured resources to human self-understanding when shorn of their lethal tendency to take themselves as final truths exhaustive of the human revelatory potential. In this sense the very fecundity of their archetypal and so sacred origins would be at the same time the basis of their relativity and their enduring truth and worth.
Though the foregoing reflection may be of some use in corroding the anti-social nature of the collective religions' understanding of "faith", it does not fully address a significant side of the contemporary religious problem. This problem is directly connected to Jung's understanding of the psychic origin of the manifest religions. In efforts to preserve the meaning of their symbols, religions (and especially Western religions) have deprived their symbols and their initially protective dogmatic formulations of a living meaning. In Jung's view the meaninglessness of symbolic discourse and its dogmatic elaboration is true not only for contemporary educated minds but also for the mind natively attuned to religion. The main culprits in the emasculation of symbolic discourse and meaning have been literalism, historicism and externalism. Each of the foregoing understand the referent of symbolic discourse to be as literal as everyday discourse. They reduce the referent of symbolic statement to objective events in the past and so external and foreign to the individual seeking meaning in the symbols. Jung felt strongly that modern spokespersons for religion had failed to put forth a compelling apology for the enduring fact of symbolic expression itself 4 with its unusual propensities for the non-literal, and irrational vested with a profundity defiant of a more mundane and superficial rationalism (Jung 1966a: 226, 227). With loss of the symbolic sense the credibility and humanizing power of religion also vanished. What Jung is suggesting in these passages is that religion in its more modern form severed its adherents from the human depths from which its symbols and myths rose to consciousness, took itself literally and historically and, in so doing, committed spiritual suicide. Jung's sustained efforts to show that religious and mythic expression owe whatever power they have to their archetypal origins fell on deaf or rejecting ears. The admission that the woeful "sacrosanct unintelligibility" of current religious symbol and dogma reflected an ignorance of the archetypal origin of religious experience and its native symbolic expression remained impossible to the mind of faith (Jung 1969e: 109). Such admission would ground the referent of the religious myth and symbol as well as their dogmatic elaboration in the foundational movements and energies of the psyche itself and not on a foreign and wholly other God as the source of an interventionist revelation then to be given assent in a demeaning and mind destroying obedience of faith in unlikely past events.
Jung's effort to demonstrate the archetypal basis of revealed truth consumed much of his energies in the construction of an apology that came, as he aged, to extend beyond Christianity. Jung's apology became an apology for religion as such. Jung was convinced that the credibility of religion itself would have to precede the recovery of the credibility of any particular religion. In this matter Jung's strategy is closely aligned with that of Paul Tillich who also thought that the apology for religion was of greater import and had to be the prelude to any apology for Christianity. In spite of his sustained efforts as an apologist of religion, it is questionable if Jung's efforts in this regard were wholly successful. If they were, it is less likely that the widespread search for a life-giving spirituality no longer to be found for many in specifically ecclesial environments would be so extensive. Nevertheless Jung's efforts to identify the archetypal basis of all religious experience, including the Christian, remain relevant in the contemporary search for a viable spirituality because one of the earmarks of such a sought for spirituality is the immediacy of spiritual experience it seeks. The Christian community and other orthodoxies proved in the end unable to revitalize their symbols by living them in the unique variant of the individual's life immediately under the unmediated and experiential impact of their psychic origin. Rather the symbols remained a body of distant revealed information simply accepted by a mind able to function quite well in its own right without them, though their reception would add important facts to their holder's intellectual repertoire, facts gained only through revelation. The symbols divested of their ability to recreate or reactivate in the individual psyche the power of their psychic origin killed them as a source of anything but intellectual meaning, a supplement to what reason could know about God. As a result the search for a spirituality of such immediacy continues to inform today's spiritual quest.
Commentators on the contemporary spiritual quest can identify many of its component characteristics. Whether the newer spirituality is practiced by one within or beyond an identifiable religious institution, it has as its core an emphasis on an interiority based on the practitioner's experience of ultimacy. In other words, regardless of its religious dynamic the new spirituality must be accessed as a psychological reality. As such it is less related or wholly unrelated to entities transcendent to the individual, a transcendence usually lodged in an existent thought of as divine and wholly other than the individual engaged in such spirituality. Many theologians fear the radical immanence present in one form or another in an emerging spirituality lest the sense of their particular version of the wholly other God be badly compromised or even undone. Rather in the spirituality emerging in contemporary culture transcendence becomes a function or consequence of a sense of an immanent power native to humanity. Spirituality becomes the process in which this power becomes conscious in the consciousness of the practitioner throughout a lifetime. Transcendence becomes a function of immanence in so much as the power native to the human always transcends its realization at any given moment in an individual's development. There is always more to be assimilated. One can never say, "It is over." One can only say, "It is alive and goes on." In this side of itself modern spirituality shares a discernible affinity with Jung's understanding that the self can be only approximated never exhaustively realized. The self is a power wholly natural and so immanent to the individual psyche and yet it always outstrips its conscious realization in the life of an individual at any time in the course of that life. On the basis of this similarity it is not surprising that both the new spirituality and Jung's understanding of psychic maturity relate the ongoing integration of the individual to a deepening sense of the interconnectedness of what is because Jung would also ground the individual self in the universality of the unconscious. Through its role in uniting the ego with its origin in the unconscious, the self is at once the author of one's intensified sense of personal uniqueness and of one's ever extending embrace of the totality. In this respect individual growth, the integration of the complexes contributing to one's uniqueness as the basis of personal wisdom, unites rather than contradicts an extended sense of participation in the totality as the basis of an ever extending compassion. The process is wholly internal to the psyche as productive of personal unification and universal relatedness. It is one that never ends.
At this point it would appear that Jungian psychology, a now widely surfacing spirituality, and what has been called the New Age share some common ground. No less an authority than the Vatican itself would support this hypothesis. In a document entitled, Jesus Christ, the Bearer of the Water of Life, issued under the joint sponsorship of the Pontifical Council for Culture and the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue on 21 February 2003, Jung is explicitly identified and rejected as not only a member but a founding member, "an Aquarian conspirator" of the New Age movement (2.3.2). Elements of the movement compatible with Jungian psychology are understood as "incompatible" with Christianity (6.1). Logically such incompatibility would have to be extended to Jung's psychology itself because the points of incompatibility are foundational to it. In its broader sweep the document attacks all forms of traditional and contemporary gnosticism and neo-gnosticism (7.2) which it rightly associates with the internalization of religion and the sacralization of the psyche so that conversation with the psyche becomes functionally conversation with divinity. In this error Jung is associated with William James (2.3.2).
Perhaps most importantly the New Age rejects a wholly transcendent and personal divinity and so defies an acceptable Christian theism (7.2). Here Jung is cited and rejected for his views on the essential divinity of the individual (2.3.2). It further condemns all forms of pantheism (2.3.1) and panentheism (7.2) closely linked to a monism supportive of a universal sensitivity in an all encompassing totality allowing and needing no divine intrusion from beyond (6.1; 7.2). In such a vision and the experience informing it, every individual and existent would participate in the being of such an organic and contained universe. The conscious development of such participation would then become the foundation of a newer spirituality and human maturation. Jung would have to plead guilty as charged to all counts of the above indictment. More, he would have to thank the authors of this document for giving a synthetic presentation of varying but essential threads in his thought which he, by and large, failed to systematize in his own copious writings. Once again the Inquisitor had done the heretic a favor in a systematization that evaded the heretic.
The document becomes yet more interesting when it turns to a critique of Jung and his psychology by name. In a questionnaire sent to 210 people asking them who had influenced them most as "Aquarian Conspirators" Jung ranked second only to Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (endnote 15). Both thinkers treasured the experience of the divine as immanent to the human and driving toward greater configurations of personal integration and universal relatedness. Due to ecclesial opposition Teilhard died with the burden of his work unpublished. Yet his fuller work shared much with Jung who had some of his work available prior to his own death (personal information). Jung's understanding of the God within would mean effectively that the relationship with God was really with the self or energies endemic to the nature of the psyche. Such a conception of an intrapsychic relation to the divine would be significant failure to relate to the wholly transcendent God of theistic Christianity. Further Jung is accused of making causality relative to correspondence, a reference no doubt to Jung's thought on synchronicity which does indeed undermine the type of causality imagined in the relationship of a wholly transcendent God creating the world and humanity as does a potter a pot (endnote 24). Jung's sense of interiority extends the divine/human relation well beyond the boundaries of divine efficient causality. Further in the Vatican document Jung's inner God is related to Abraxas (6.1) in connection with the problem of evil and Jung's contention that what unquestionably exists in existence must unquestionably emanate from its source (7.2). It may be indicative that this thorny problem is not addressed at any great length in the document other than to reaffirm the absence of evil in an acceptable Christian God. Again in the index at the end of the document Jung is mentioned in relation to depth psychology where certain features of his psychology are listed without comment. Perhaps the foregoing was enough. In excluding Jung and Jungian psychology from the realm of Christian orthodoxy the imagination at work in the document is that of a wholly transcendent objective and self-sufficient God who has revealed himself definitively, and exhaustively in the historical personage of Jesus never to be confused with one among many religious notables. By implication this revelation is final and universally valid in its extension to global humanity itself. As such it has to be universally inclusive meaning exclusive of other religions and spiritualities and, relevant to this discussion, rejective of an immediate and experiential relation to the divine as the ground of the individual's personal being and so as the basis of the individual's relation to the totality.
None of this is to say that Jungian psychology can be reduced to or identified with the New Age movement if there is such a unified movement. This would be to mistakenly identify the specific reality of Jung's psychology and its understanding of the psyche with a grouping of disparate spiritualities which no doubt have much in common but lack the organic unity in Jung's thought on the psyche when the latter is taken in its totality. Nevertheless the document is of great value in delineating some of the major features of Jung's understanding of the psyche and its relation to religion and to Christianity. The document is obviously based on a sense of divine transcendence which Jung forcefully rejected in his heated exchanges with Martin Buber and in his more sustained conversation with Victor White. Both conversations revealed that the Jewish and Catholic Christian conceptions of divine transcendence were not compatible with Jung's understanding of the psychogenesis of religion, of religious maturation and the direction in which the psyche was currently leading the evolution of religious consciousness, at least, in the West.
Finally, the document hostile to the New Age is highly critical of a mysticism which would culminate in a fusion between the divine and the human so that the distinction between them would be wholly defeated (7.2). In fact the Christian mystics to whom Jung turns in his corpus undergo such a loss of distinction in a nothingness in which their personal identity is fused with the divine in an abyss beyond all separation. This mystical experience is described as apophatic in the Christian tradition and is currently undergoing something of a revival at least in academic circles. Jung would understand all mystical experience as archetypal in origin but did have a greater appreciation for the mystics of the apophatic. But the nothingness they undergo carries with it a certain passivity or resignation that moderate the drive of the archetypes to become conscious in human consciousness the unconscious creates for that purpose. Penetration into an area of psyche beyond archetypal urgency, though best described in religious and mystical terms, could be a valuable asset in ushering the archetypes into consciousness, individual and collective, in such a way as to preserve and enhance consciousness in the process and offset the enmity between archetypally constellated communities now threatening the species.
No doubt profound archetypal differences would still mark discrete cultures and their supportive religions but the recognition of their common origin in a psyche preceding their differences whose further reach is in the stillness of the nothing prior to all form and drive to form could well lend them less lethal in their conscious interface.
Reflection then on what Jung has to offer to the search for a modern and vital spirituality unites many apparently disparate dimensions in contemporary religious culture. It would point to a religious vision grounding a spirituality which would appreciate even as it transcended the concretions of collective and often conflicted religions currently threatening humanity itself. The search for such a spirituality would touch, perhaps deeply, the contemporary political and societal reality in enabling cultures to move beyond their current joint petrifaction and resultant clashes. It could point to depths in the human soul, spirit or psyche as the common origin of all significant human expression but especially of extant religions. The exposition of these depths could lead to their wider cultivation in a growing collective sense of a common humanity appreciative of the shared origins of its deepest differences as the basis of an embrace not beyond but through these differences. What follows is simply a more extensive presentation of what Jung has to offer in these many areas of a now growing human concern.
The Heart of the Matter: Individuation as an Ethical Process by
Christina Becker (Chiron Publications) The Heart is the meeting
place of the individual and the divine—the inner ground of morality,
authenticity, and integrity. The process of coming to the Heart and
realizing the person we were meant to be is what Carl Jung called
"Individuation." This path is full of moral challenges for anyone
with the courage to take it up.
Using Jung’s premise—that the main causes of psychological problems are conflicts of conscience—the author takes the reader through the philosophical and spiritual aspects of the ethical dimensions of this individual journey toward wholeness.
This book is a long overdue and unique contribution to the link between individuation and ethics.
Psychologically, the Heart performs an integrative psychic function, and carries individual morality. The Heart is the place where opposites converge: Logos and Eros; masculine and feminine; thinking and feeling; the rationality of the ego and the irrationality of the unconscious. It possesses its own knowledge and its own truth. This truth is distinct from the truth of the mind while also containing it. The Heart is the seat of conscience, understanding, forgiveness, grace, and our ethical attitude; it is the place of dialogue. In the Heart, we can be in the ethical attitude of holding both polarities until the new attitude appears.
This book is an inquiry into philosophical and spiritual aspects of individuation's ethical dimensions. Specifically, these aspects are viewed in the context of people actively engaged in their process and in the practice of analytical psychology. The book is aimed at clients and patients wishing to understand how to live an ethical life when confronted with the amorality of the unconscious and the ethical conflicts of duty that arise. Becker also addresses analysts, therapists, and those in training by providing a framework for thinking and reflecting on these issues. The work spans many aspects of this complicated topic: Is morality learned or is it innate? How do we live in the world ethically, authentically, and with integrity? What is the distinction between the individual "Voice of God" and collective ethical codes? and How do we live this tension in our lives and in day-to-day practice as analysts? Finally, how do we confront the Shadow in individuals and collectives and bring these elements to consciousness?
The book is divided into two parts. The first part looks at individuation as an ethical process as Jung understood it. Included in this examination are Jung's philosophical influences and personal experiences, which informed his belief that morality is innate in human beings and rests at the archetypal level of the psyche. These explorations also present a classical notion of analytical psychology within the philosophical and psychological contexts of ethics, morality, and conscience. They offer insights into the underpinnings of Jung's theories and ideas. Particular moral and ethical challenges are highlighted—especially related to conscience and the ethical confrontation with the unconscious.
The second part of the book addresses more collective, twenty-first-century implications of Jung's ideas of the "Voice of God". It also explores contemporary issues related to the practice of analytic psychology, given the legacy of Jung's personal relationships with his clients. While supporting individual subjective psychic experience, analysts can side with the psyche to the neglect of collective ethical codes. As a result, many analysts have committed serious boundary violations, all in the name of following the "Voice of God" or the Self. In recent years, the Jungian community has come to the unanimous agreement that sexual activity between analyst and analysand represents a serious rupture in the analytic relationship. However, between the obvious inappropriateness of sexual activity and the institution of strict, rigid rules prohibiting any crossing of analytic boundaries, there exists a field where there are no hard and fast rules, and where the line between ethical and unethical behavior is difficult to distinguish. It is possible for an analyst to adhere strictly to collective codes of ethics prescribed by governing bodies and still behave unethically. In this space, the subject of ethics is a much more delicate and ambiguous endeavor. Most of the issues that arise within this area involve non-sexual boundary violations.
As part of this discussion, Becker examines the archetypal foundations of analytic boundaries and the important role they play in supporting individuation as an ethical process—for both analyst and analysand. Becker argues that the therapeutic relationship has an archetypal core that informs our experience of analysis. The constellation of the Divine Healer with its potential to heal also brings with it the potential for the Charlatan and the False Prophet to wound. Central questions within this dynamic are: What is the difference between flexibility and violation? When is the crossing of the boundary experienced as healing by the analysand? When is it experienced as wounding? Case material is provided, which presents both sides of this issue. Becker has also included the results of a survey she prepared as part of the research for her Diploma Thesis at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zürich. In it, she asked practicing analysts (members of the IAAP) how they lived the tension between individual conscience and collective moral codes in their daily practice. In conclusion, Becker looks at suffering and the ethical attitudes required to live individuation as an ethical process in everyday life and in practice.
Animal Life in Nature, Myth and Dreams by Elizabeth Caspari with Ken Robbins (Chiron Publications) In Animal life in Nature, Myth and Dreams, Elizabeth Caspari connects the world of real, living animals with the symbolic world of animal images in human thought, both conscious and unconscious. She gives the reader an opportunity to make this connection on his or her own personal journey of discovery.
This book is a study of animals — their natural history, mythology, folklore and religious significance around the world as well as their role in our lives, dreams and everyday language. It examines the symbolic impact animals have on our collective culture, particularly on our own personal and interior lives.
From Albatross to Zebra, each animal is pictured in color and factual context is given about its behavior in the natural world. In-formation is included about habitat, distribution, weight, size, longevity and classification. By drawing on a process of amplification developed by C.G Jung, in which an image is related to a previous historical, mythological, religious or ethnological context, Animal Life discusses the meaning of the animal in a dream, amplifying the reader's understanding of that animal.
This book is intended for anyone interested in the actual behavior and nature of animals and the world we live in, and presents a good deal of ethological and mythological material. It is meant to be more than a mere compilation of facts. Caspari's is a holistic approach to the world. By contemplating the significance of our fellow creatures, and how everything in our universe is linked, it is the author's hope that we can have a more whole, and more healing view of the world.
Here, at last, the much-needed compilations of animal lore that can help us understand and appreciate the creatures that populate our worlds, both outer and interior. In this totally delightful and beautifully illustrated book, Elizabeth Caspari introduces each animal with scientific, zoological information; then presents popular folkloric beliefs about, and traditional symbolic associations to them the world over. These are extremely useful for our understanding of traditional emblematic and symbolic references to animals in the literature and art of numerous cultural traditions. Finally, symbolic psychological discussions are included to help us understand the possible meaning animals convey and radiate in our own dreams and fantasies.
This book is an essential reference. It offers something for everybody: from the scholar seeking to understand heraldic symbolism in medieval poetry, to the psychotherapist engaging the symbolism of the animal life of the psyche, to the sports fan wondering about the animal name of his or her favorite team.
Here Elizabeth Caspari presents the physical and behavioral characteristics of 101 animals, as well as their role in mythology and fairy tales and their possible symbolic meanings in dreams. A beautifully illustrated companion for the naturalist, student, artist and psychotherapist, Animal Life in Nature, Myths and Dreams crystallizes the value and meaning of animals in the natural world and the human soul.
Elizabeth Caspari has taught seminars on "Art, Dreams and
Creativity" and has produced art works in diverse media. She studied
painting at the Art Students League in
Her combined interests in art and Jungian psychology led to her
work in art therapy. For the last twenty years, her major
professional interest has been the mythology and natural life of
animals. This book is the fruit of her years of research and travels
Jung and Steiner: The Birth of a New Psychology by Gerhard Wehr, with a foreword by Robert Sardello (Anthroposophic Press) A series of extraordinary questions begin to hover when we consider the names C. G. Jung and Rudolf Steiner together: What is the difference between soul and spiritual consciousness? Or the process of individuation and the development of individuality? How do Jungs Self and Steiners I compare?
The different approaches of C.G. Jung, the explorer of soul, and Rudolf Steiner, the explorer of spirit, have never been fully brought together. How, putting these together, can a more holistic understanding of the human being be reached?
and Steiner Gerhard Wehr, both an anthroposophist and a biographer of
Jung, answers these questions and explores what a psychology that comprehends
both soul and spirit would begin to look like. Wehr discusses both Jungs and
Steiners views on many topics including
Wehr shows how meditation relates to the image work of the soul; and he compares the soul and spiritual views of sexuality. He also considers the Grail stream as a way of uniting Jung and Steiner. He discusses the significance of a therapeutic perspective large enough to address the cultural problems of our time. By approaching two important worldviews with depth, they are enlarged, strengthened, and revitalized. If taken to heart, this work can free both the spiritual science of Steiner and the analytic psychology of Jung from the dangers of dogmatism.
With a profound and original introduction by Robert Sardello and an extensive appendix with essays on depth psychology and anthroposophy by Hans Erhard Lauer, Jung and Steiner bears witness to the birth of a new psychology.
Jung and Steiner does not merely offer a comparison of two creative individuals each of whom has brought something decidedly new to the world. This book goes much further and its reach has to do with the method employed which Wehr calls synoptic. Rather than setting the externals of two systems side by side and looking at each for similarities and differences, Wehr sets the core meaning of each beside the other. Out of the tension something new comes into being. Robert Sardello
The Journey of Luke Skywalker: An Analysis of Modern Myth and Symbol by Steven A. Galipeau (Open Court) George Lucass Star Wars films have captured the collective imagination of the public, both in the United States and abroad. Many fans see Luke Skywalkers quest his conflicts and victories, his colleagues and enemies as an all-encompassing modern-day myth. But what exactly does that myth symbolize and what does it say about our 21st-century psyche? Jungian analyst Steven Galipeau believes that the story speaks to our deepest psychological and spiritual dilemmas. From Princess Leias domination by Darth Vader (the feminine/masculine pairing) to the introduction of The Force (a parallel of Jungs collective unconscious), from the Ewoks (nature and instinct) to the Stormtroopers (soulless technology), Galipeau shows how and why the movies themes and conflicts mirror our own. The book is essentially a blow-by-blow description of each film with liberal doses of dialog, followed by Galipeau's interpretation of what the characters' words and actions might mean on a deeper level. Discussing each episode on a separate basis allows readers to comprehend the psychological growth of each character, especially Luke, who is transformed from an inexperienced adolescent to a spiritually and mentally mature adult by the series' finale.
JUNG AND SHAMANISM IN DIALOGUE: Retrieving the Soul. Retrieving the Sacred by C. Michael Smith ($29.95, paper, 274 pages, notes, index; Paulist Press; 0-8091-3667-8)
In this study, C. Michael Smith explores the affinities and distinctions between shamanism and Jungian psychology by bringing them together in dialogue. According to Smith, shamanism is a complex of practices of magico-religious character concerned primarily with psychospiritual and psychosomatic healing. Smith systematically examines shamanism from a Jungian perspective, and Jungian psychology from a shamanic perspective, ultimately reflecting on the clinical and cultural implications of this study on psychotherapy and spirituality today. This study contributes to a postmodernist integration of principle analytic psychology concepts but it also offers a way to appreciate clinical practice.
Jung and Shamanism in Dialogue makes an excellent resource for psychotherapists, social workers, clergy and anyone interested in tapping into psycho spiritual wisdom.
C. Michael Smith holds a Ph.D. and D.Min. from the Chicago Theological Seminary. He is a Michigan licensed psychologist and adjunct professor in psychology at the Chicago Theological Seminary, and he serves as co-director of Haelan Counseling Center in Niles, Michigan.
ALCHEMICAL ACTIVE IMAGINATION by Marie-Louise von Franz. ($16.95, paper,144 pages, Shambhala; ISBN 0877735891)
C. G. Jung's most important living disciple explains alchemy as a symbolic process of
psychological and spiritual transformation.
Although alchemy is popularly regarded as the science that sought to transmute base physical matter, many of the medieval alchemists were more interested in developing a discipline that would lead to the psychological and spiritual transformation of the individual. C. G. Jung
discovered in his study of alchemical texts a symbolic and imaginal language that expressed many of his own insights into psychological processes. In this book, Dr. von Franz examines a text by the sixteenth-century alchemist and physician Gerhard Dorn in order to show the relationship of alchemy to the concepts and techniques of analytical psychology. In particular, she shows that the alchemists practiced a kind of meditation similar to Jung's technique of active imagination, which enables one to dialogue with the unconscious archetypal elements in the
psyche. The book opens therapeutic insights into the relations among spirit, soul, and body in the practice of active imagination.
1 ORIGINS OF ALCHEMY Extraverted and Introverted Traditions
2 DIVINE POWER IN MATTER
3. THE PROBLEM OF THE BODY AND THE REDEMPTION OF THE CHRISTIAN SHADOW
4. MIND AND BODY IN THE CASTLE OF PHILOSOPHICAL LOVE
5. MEDIEVAL MAGIC AND MODERN SYNCHRONICITY
6. VIR UNUS / UNUS MUNDUS
ARCHETYPAL PATTERNS IN FAIRY TALES by Marie-Louise von Franz ($18.00, paperback, 191 pages; Inner City Books, ISBN: 0919123775
Archetypal Patterns in Fairy Tales is the first new volume of Dr. von Franz's legendary Zurich lectures to be published since 1980. There are in-depth studies of six fairy tales from Denmark, Spain, China, France and Africa, and one from the Grimm Brothers' collection with references to parallel themes in many others. Featuring the symbolic, nonlinear approach this author is famous for, it offers unique insights into cross-cultural motifs, as well as being an invaluable resource for understanding dream images.
Marie-Louise von Franz, Ph.D., for many years a close colleague of C.G. Jung, is an acknowledged authority on the psychological interpretation of fairy tales, myths and alchemy. She is the author of many books on the application of Jungian psychology, including three modern classics in this series: Redemption Motifs in Fairy Tales, On Divination and Synchronicity, and Alchemy: An Introduction to the Symbolism and the Psychology.
This book is a collection of fairy tale interpretations I presented in a series of lectures at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich. I did not want to focus on a specific theme but rather to wander through many countries and types of fairy tales. I chose some that challenged me because they were unusual. I wanted to show both their diversity and their underlying similarities, so that one could appreciate what is nationally or racially specific and what is common to all civilizations and all human beings. I wanted to show how Jung's method of interpreting archetypal fantasy material could be applied to these diverse tales.
THE MYSTERIUM LECTURES: A Journey through Jung's Mysterium Coniunctionis by Edward F. Edinger ($20 90 illustrations. 352 pp. ISBN 091912366X)
Considered to be the most esoteric and difficult work by Jung, Edinger offers an exceptionaly lucid introduction and commentary to this core work of the Jung opus.
Other major interpretative work by Edinger include: The Aion Lectures: Exploring the Self in C.G. Jung's Aion; Transformation of Libido : A Seminar on Jung's Symbols of Transformation;and The Mystery of the Coniunctio : Alchemical Image of Individuation.
THE NEW GOD-IMAGE:A Study of Jungs key letters Concerning the Evolution of the Western God-Image by Edward F. Edinger ($24.95, paper, 205 pages, bibliography, index; Chiron; 0-933029-98-5)
C. G. Jung saw in the cultural history of Western people a progressive evolution of its God-image. During the last ten years of his life, he wrote a series of remarkable letters about the new God-image which is now emerging through the discoveries of depth psychology.
Dr. Edward Edinger has selected fourteen of these letters to discuss and has segmented the book into the following three parts
"If enough individuals have had that transformative experience [coniunctio] within
themselves, then they become seeds sown in the collective psyche which can promote the
unification of the collective psyche as a whole.
How many will it take? ...I think each individual ought to live his life out of the hypothesis that maybe one would do."
In June 1957, Jung wrote a letter to Bernard Lang, which begins as follows
Many thanks for your friendly letter, which shows that the Buber-Jung controversy is a serious matter for you. And so indeed it is, for here that threshold which separates two epochs plays the principal role. I mean by that threshold the theory of knowledge whose starting point is Kant. On that threshold minds go their separate ways those that have understood Kant, and the others that cannot follow him. I will not enter here into the Critique of Pure Reason, but will try to make things clear to you from a different, more human standpoint.
He speaks of "that threshold the theory of knowledge whose starting-point is Kant." The theory of knowledge is the definition of epistemology, a word which is derived from two Greek words episteme, meaning knowledge and logos, meaning word or reason. Epistemology is the study of the process of knowing. It asks such questions as what do we know for certain and how do we know it? It is a concern with the study, origin, nature, and validity of knowledge. Put in psychological terms, epistemology refers to the nature and function of consciousness. In ancient times, epistemology was concerned with what could be known objectively. Human subjectivity, the beginning of modern consciousness, began about the year 1500, a crucial date in the Christian aeon, the time when the spring point moved over into the second fish in the astrological constellation of Pisces. Jung makes quite a point of That took place in human history right around 1500 the ego took a giant leap forward in its hubristic efforts, and the God-image fell out of heaven and into the psyche of man. The awareness of human subjectivity was born new place all by himself. He knew that. He expressed that fact in one of his lugubrious letters. He bemoaned the fact that he is all alone "a few people understand this and that, but almost nobody sees the whore."' that is the fate of the person who is ahead of his time, whose life therefore is largely a posthumous life. He recognized that about himself. He used that phrase concerning himself his "life is a posthumous one." The question relevant for us to ask iswhat does this have to do with everyday psychotherapy?
Jungian psychology, by preserving a living myth which connects both the individual and society to its roots, has redemptive powers for society also. Myth is preeminently a social phenomenon it is told by the many and heard by the many. It gives the ultimately unimaginable religious experience an image, a form in which to express itself, and thus makes community life possible.
A generally accepted myth "makes community life possible." The implications of that psychological fact are immense. I believe the evidence is very clear that every organic community, including the largest communitiesnamely, whole civilizationsexist as organic entities because [they are] contained within a common myth, which provides all the members of that community a common basis of connection to the transpersonal. What we are witnessing today is a profound breakdown of our collective myth. The result is that there is a fragmentation of the body social. It is breaking up into fragments of wretched "isms," which are at war against each other. We see the same thing happening in Yugoslavia, and other places that are released from the imposition of unity from above. With no containing myth to unify them from within or from below, they disintegrate into wretched, regressive "isms." That is the vast panorama we witness everywhere today.
Each of the stages mentioned earlier had a containing myth. Even today various myths exist concurrently, depending on the advancement of culture and the individual. Antiquity was the phase of polytheism, and ancient Judaism was the beginning of monotheism. Monotheism was associated with the establishment of a specific relationship between God and man. There was no such personal relationship in polytheism, which makes all of antiquity essentially tragic. There is no redemption to be had in antiquity, with the exception of initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries, because, although there were venous devices like the augurs and the omens to read certain messages from the divine realm, there was no living connection of concern between man and the divine. That means that antiquity hovered between heroism and despair. The heroic was accomplished in spite of the tragic, futile state of humanity. The central wisdom of antiquity was enunciated by Sophocles "Best for man never to have been born at all and next best to die young." That was the pinnacle of ancient wisdom the consequence of that stage of relation between the ego and the Self. That all changes with the emergence of monotheism and with the personal relationship connection between the ego and the Self.
Edward F. Edinger is a leading Jungian analyst residing in Los Angeles. He is a
founding member of the C. G. Jung Foundation of New York, and former chairman of the C. G.
Jung Training Center in New York where he practiced for many years. Dr. Edinger is the
author of fourteen books dealing with the Jungian themes of archetypes, psyche, Self, and
analysis. Another work related Jung's Answer to Job is Transformation of
the God-Image : An Elucidation of
Jung's Answer to Job.
THE FUNCTIONING TRANSCENDENT by Ann Ulanov ($24.95, paper, Continuum, ISBN 0-933029-99-3
The Transcendent is a reality that functions in all our lives all the time---call it God, the unknown, or the holy. It is not some obscure out-of-reach Other available only to those with specialized knowledge or a phenomenon spoken about only in a church, temple, or mosque.
In our daily lives, the Transcendent is often experienced addressing us through our compulsions, perversions, and ordinary struggles. We find it touching us through our most shameful problems and bidding us to realize our most hidden promise.
Jungian analyst Ann Ulanov shows us how the Transcendent appears in her clinical work, how to work with it in dreams and symptoms, and how it informs encounters between analyst and analysand. She demonstrates the spiritual aspect of analysis in her case observations dealing with fatness and the female, masochistic suffering, parental relationships, follow-up treatment in patient/ therapist sex, and the resolution of suicidal temptations.
Ann Belford Ulanov, Ph.D., L.H.D., is a Jungian analyst in private practice in New York City, a faculty member and supervising analyst for the C. G. Jung Institute of New York City, and the Christiane Brooks Johnson Professor of Psychiatry and Religion at Union Theological Seminary. She is the author of six books and many articles dealing with Jungian psychology, theology, and women's issues, and coauthor of six books with her husband, Barry Ulanov
PRACTICING WHOLENESS: Analytical Psychology and Jungian Thought by Murray Stein ($27.50, hardcover, 237 pages, bibliography, index; Continuum; 0-8264-0905-9
Stein's work is at the center of much Jungian training these days. In this volume he explores on some central aspects of clinical practice into the consideration of the art of psychotherapy. His work compliments Ulanov's consideration of the Transcendent.
Wholeness is a difficult concept to work with in any field, and psychology and its practical application in psychotherapy are no exception. As a concept it extends to all-inclusiveness and therefore threatens to scatter its force in vagueness and the nebulous wonders of cosmic speculation. As I use it in this book I have in mind the general human urge to want to fulfill all potentials given by our organism, by our times and the society we live in, and by our imagination. Wholeness is what we desire most deeply even if we do not know what it is we are striving after and cannot put a name to it.
If wholeness is the goal of our deepest human desire, it is also something that encompasses our entire lifetime and all our efforts at self-expression. It is not something we achieve once and for all. It is not static, a state of being that can be arrived at. To use the metaphor of art making, we can say that living well is an art but it is an art that is never perfected or completed. The painting that we create by living is a work always in progress, and even death is not necessarily the final brush stroke to the canvas. How we live and how we die are certainly the keys to our individual styles. One person paints an austere picture in shades of white, black, brown, and gray. Another paints in exuberant splashes of primary color. Abstract or representational, impressionistic or surreal, classic or romantic, each style is a way to embrace wholeness and to reveal its extensions. There are many paths to wholeness, many ways to express it concretely in life, and many modes of exploring and revealing its endless possibilities.
To practice wholeness is to engage in this endeavor intentionally. Like practicing the piano, it is a daily activity. One practices to deepen the art, to increase the range of expression, to discover nuance. Wholeness is no more achieved than piano artistry is finally attained. It is won anew every day. Perhaps one day builds on another and the present is the result of the past, and yet as any concert performer will confess, each day is a brand new struggle to attain the pleasures of fluency and the delicate fingering required by genuine artistry. No day may pass without conscious, deliberate effort. Put aside the clich that practice makes perfect. It does not. Practice overcomes resistance for the moment, but that resistance reappears and must be conquered afresh. Perfection is out of the question.
To practice wholeness in the psychological sense is to practice living on several levels at the same time. There can be no wholeness without the practical and concrete expression of a life lived in reality, in society, in the time frame of chronological life possibilities. There is a time to have children, for instance, and if this is ignored one cannot make up for it with imaginary children. Not that every life lived toward wholeness must include having childrenbut if children are to be a part of it they must appear at a particular time, concretely and actually. There is a time to make a career, and again if this time is missed a price is exacted. So, life lived concretely and practically in an everyday sense is one dimension of practicing wholeness. Another dimension is the symbolic. Imagination and dreams belong to one's wholeness, and practicing wholeness includes holding consciousness of them as they appear in life. These factors often add a sense of meaning and psychic depth to periods of life that otherwise would be two-dimensional. They also lure us forward into a future of possibility. There is also the dimension of emotion and feeling, which adds color and music to wholeness. There is the dimension of intellect and understanding, which clarifies who and what we are and perhaps suggests what is going on. Differentiation and discrimination are essential products of practicing wholeness. Moving in and through these several dimensions and linking them to one another is what practicing wholeness is all about.
Finally, practicing wholeness is active. This does not exclude reflection. The verb "to reflect" indicates that this is also an activity. Reflecting upon events and the recent and far past is as important a factor in practicing wholeness as is creating new futures, new plans, new objects. The accent, however, is on the dynamic element. Wholeness is not a thing, a substance, a state of being to be achieved or held on to or enjoyed; it is in fact nothing in and of itself. It is a concept that keeps us moving along a spiral of consciousness. We practice wholeness by staying close to our true selves, by using our energy to act in the world with integrity. Only in the final analysis can one say what the pattern woven into the tapestry of an individual life has been. In retrospect, looking back over one's youth and middle years and late years from the vantage point of old age, one might be lucky enough to glimpse the overall pattern and perceive the meaning of the whole. Along the way one also has moments of insight, glimpses of the whole as it is unfolding. But one is never absolutely sure, for the ultimate pattern and its meaning are a mystery, perhaps known only to God. At best we interpret and study the details for a hint. And in the meantime we go on practicing, daily, faithfully...
In the first part of the book I set out the general concept of wholeness and attempt to detail what it is made up of by using Jung's theory of instincts and archetypes. As Jung conceptualized the psyche, it is formed out of the union of body and spirit, instinct and archetype. He listed five instincts and an indefinite number of archetypes. The object, from the point of wholeness, is to unite instinct and archetype in a field of activity that is not severely restricted by the pathological structures incurred in one's personal life history. In this part of the book, too, I point out some methods for increasing the range and effectiveness of practicing wholeness and extend the discussion into one of the most common and mundane areas of life, the workplace.
In the second part of the book, which makes up the majority of its pages, my focus is the clinical practice of psychotherapy. Here I set out a general philosophical statement about the practice of analytical psychotherapy by examining the relation of psychotherapeutic treatment to human nature. From there I move on to several aspects of treatment as these confront the practicing therapist and the practiced upon patient: the reconstruction of personal history and its meaning, the nature of the relationship between therapist and patient and the role this plays in the healing process, and some psychopathological problems that stand in the way of practicing wholeness. Certainly I cannot claim that this section is exhaustive of the kinds of things that happen in the course of long-term psychotherapy, which in Jungian circles we call analysis, but I do believe it is representative. Throughout all of these chapters, the central concern is the practice of wholeness as this takes place within the context of psychotherapy.
It should be clear to the reader from even this brief introduction that I regard the practice of wholeness as an essentially non-clinical activity. By no stretch of the imagination can it be considered as a unique product of the therapeutic industry. It is a human activity that reaches across cultures and across historical eras to include human beings, women and men, adults and children, throughout human history who have seriously struggled to understand themselves and to extend the scope of their consciousness and self-actualization. Practicing wholeness is what the more adventuresome and expansive, and/or intensive among the general human population have done in all times and all places. This book is a witness to that universal human phenomenon and an attempt to give it greater definition and precision as well as to promote its usefulness in all areas of the contemporary world.
PSYCHE AND FAMILY: Jungian Applications to Family edited by Laura Dodson and Terrill Gibson ($17.95, paper, Chrion)
In 1958, Jung offered his prediction that a shift in archetypal energies would occur over our world as we move into the twenty-first century, a shift that would tug at the inner psychological and spiritual lives of many people. This archetypal shift, he predicted, would move people toward growth of the self or soul in both the inner world of the individual and the outer world of family and global systems.
It seems that this is actually happening rapidly all around and in many of us. If the multi-theoretical professions of psychology are to make their contributions to this phenomena must move beyond disciplinary zealotry toward cross disciplinary openness. This book contributes to that movement as it reaches to the depth of psyche and soul and bridges to couple and family systems. It is intended for both those who live and struggle in relationships and for practitioners of psychotherapy.
This engaging and imaginative book argues that Jungian depth psychology and family systems theory are soul mates. Notions like the collective unconscious and archetypes can't be contained within an intrapsychic frame. Object relations theory was the initial bridge. The possibilities are now clearer in an age of holistic thought and spirituality. This calls for "cross disciplinary wonder." What a sweet antidote to the oppression of managed care and DSM IV. Family therapists revitalize yourselves with this mind expanding book. In terms of effect short term clinical work this important synthesis to two unique systems of psychodynamics'' offers practical insights to the practicing psychotherapists.
KNOWING WOMAN: a Feminine Psychology by Irene Claremont de Castillejo. ($13.00, paper, bibliography, Shambahala; ISBN 1570622043
In this classic work from 1973, a noted Jungian analyst explores the division of the human psyche into masculine and feminine. Characteristic of feminine consciousness, she writes, is diffuse awareness, which recognizes the unity of all life and promotes acceptance and relationship. The masculine attitude is one of focused consciousness, the capacity to formulate ideas and to change, invent, and create. Concerned with the experience of women in a culture dominated by masculine values, the author discusses topics such as the animus (the masculine "soul image" in a woman's unconscious); women's roles in relation to work, friends, children, and lovers; and issues such as abortion, aging, and self-determination.
II Responsibility and shadow
III Man the hero
IV Roles of women-woman as mediator
V The animus friend or foe?
VI The second apple
VIII What do we mean by love?
IX The Rainmaker ideal
X The older woman
XI Soul images of woman
Irene Claremont de Castillejo was a Jungian analyst who studied feminine psychology with Emma Jung and Toni Wolff in Zurich.
ARCHETYPAL DIMENSIONS OF THE PSYCHE by Marie-Louise von Franz ($35.00, hardcover, 408 pages, notes, bibliography, index, Shambhala, 1-57062-133-0)
In the view of Jungian psychology, we are living today through a crucial transition: a period of reaction against cultural and religious forms that have become rigid and cut off from the creative wellspring of the collective unconscious. The hidden significance of this "psychic emergency" is that it spurs the development of human consciousness on toward a spiritual rebirth.
In this bookthe fourth and final volume in a series of collected essaysthe eminent Jungian analyst Marie-Louise van Franz uses her vast knowledge of myths, fairy tales, dreams, and visions to show how the collective psyche itself has pointed to ways of resolving the modern predicament. She discusses Mercurius, the darkly paradoxical figure from medieval alchemy; the visions of the Swiss mystic Niklaus von Flue; the "unknown visitor" motif in fairy tales; the Cosmic Man as image of the goal of human development; and many archetypal dreams of contemporary people. All of these can be seen as expressions of a collective urge in the West to reintegrate nature and the body, matter and spiritand, Ultimately to help us find our way, individually and collectively, to a renewed unity of being and culture.
Marie-Louise van Franz is considered the foremost living follower of C. G. Jung, with whom she worked closely from 1934 until his death m 1961. A founder of the C. G. Jung Institute in Zurich, she has published widely on subjects including alchemy, dreams, fairy tales, personality types, and psychotherapy.
THE QUEENS CLOAK: A Myth of Mid-Life by Joan Chamberlain Engelman ($14.95, paper, 115 pages, bibliography, index, Chiron, 0-933029-73-X
Once upon a time, after the winter festival, the Queen realized she was bored and rather depressed. Looking at her ladies-in-waiting, she asked if anyone could think of something interesting to do. Most suggested the same old things, but one woman remembered that long ago the Queen had mentioned doing an inventory of the castle. "Now is the time," cried the Queen with delight.
In THE QUEENS CLOAK , Engelsman provides us with an entry point into our own lifes unfolding. Using the timeless form of the fairy tale, she draws you out of the everyday world and into the archetypal realm of eternal human patterns, where new perspectives await.
Engelsman offers respectful and helpful counsel in her commentary but always leaves room for your own response to emerge. Those who wrap themselves in THE QUEENS CLOAK will find the experience to be a challenging opportunity to reappraise and reweave the threads of their own ways of living.
Dr. Engelsman is a well-known author and lecturer in the fields of psychology and spirituality. She is an adjunct faculty member at Drew University and is a noted consultant on family violence. She is the author of The Feminine Dimension of the Divine.
DREAM THEATRES OF THE SOUL: Empowering the Feminine through Jungian Dream Work by Jean Benedict Raffia, Foreword by Robert Johnson ($15.95, paper, 221 pages, bibliography, index, LuraMedia, 1-880913-10-0)
The power and mystery of dreams often confound us if we but pay attention to them. Often we wonder about the strange and emotionally evocative scenarios played out in our unconscious minds during sleep. The places, events, and people encountered seem to hold significant meaning, but it often eludes us. DREAM THEATRES OF THE SOUL, a fascinating exploration of the dream world, provides a practical guide to understanding your dreams and achieving personal growth through dream interpretation.
In this time when we are so worldly and ego-directed yet so in need of the guidance of spirit, tools such as this book which help us explore our feminine inner world and larger Self are precious gems. Jean Raffas book offers an important and original contribution to the literature about dreams. Raffa has a way of presenting complex ideas clearly and directly.
This unique book will be extremely helpful as you seek to assimilate the wisdom of your dreams. Raffa is lucid and articulate about complex Jungian theory, and her dream interpretations are warmly personal. This is a definite beginners book that offers introductory materiel in such away as to invite self-inquiry and reflection.
Some books educate the mind; others nourish the soul. DREAM THEATRES OF THE SOUL does both. This refreshingly forthright work combines the practicality of a handbook with the poetry of theater to provide a compelling testimony to the mysterious healing power of dreams.
Raffa is also the author of The Bridge to Wholeness: A Feminine Alternative to the Hero Myth
MERCURY RISING: Women, Evil and the Trickster Gods by Deldon Anne McNeely ($18.00, paper, 208 pages, notes, Spring Publications, 0-88214-366-2)
Feminine Trickster figures have fascinated us from Sheherazade to Mata Hari to the fatal attraction next door. Tricksters by their nature force us to question our sense of order and morality along with our sanity. Mercurial and paradoxical, this archetype opens up something new and something larger than our current Selves. Combine that with the feminine and evil and the result is a riveting book as unusual as Women Who Run with the Wolves. McNeelys book is destined to become a much consulted classic especially in helping to understand the idiosyncrasies of the feminine and evil.
Deldon Anne McNeely, originally from New Orleans studied and trained in Zurich, Switzerland and is a graduate of the C. G. Jung Institute of Chicago. She is a psychoanalyst in Lynchburg, Virginia.
THE WOMAN WHO LOST HER HEART: A Tale of Reawakening by Susan OHalloran and Susan Delattre ($10.95, paper, 148 pages, Innisfree Press, 1-880913-27-5)
THE WOMAN WHO FOUND HER VOICE: A Tale of Transforming by Susan OHalloran and Susan Delattre ($12.95, paper, 154 pages, Innisfree Press, 1-880913-18-6)
In their first book, THE WOMAN WHO LOST HER HEART, the heroine led us on a perilous journeytumbling over waterfalls, crawling into dark, dank caves, navigating her way through desert sandstormsall to discover the importance of self-knowledge and nurturance. This fable reminds women to nurture their Inner Self. "Be prepared to be swept away!" An exhilarating adventure whose compelling images and feelings speak directly to the hidden child in each of us. Through this she learns to think about herself differently. In THE WOMAN WHO FOUND HER VOICE, the heroine is invited to think about the core issues differently. In this medieval tale for modern adults, a woman named Marina learns to make a difference in an unjust world. Despairing over her efforts to save a runaway child, she is visited by a magical hawk who enables her to assume the identity of mythical creatures. From each animal she learns a valuable lesson until she develops the ability to speak up for what she believes. Her questions may be yours: Where is my community? What can I do to make the world a better place? How do I relate to the people who seem to be working against me? How do I speak up for what I believe? They seek to answer these questions through story, to show what the middle path of harmony, compassion, and true social change might look like, and so we each need each others gentle imaginings to point the way. Therein, as they say, lies the tale.
They chose story as a way to explore these questions because it is one of the most open of art forms. Stories call us in on whatever level we want to enter and keep the door open if we should ever choose to come back for more.
THE TAO OF JUNG: The Way of Integrity by David Rosen($21.95, hardcover, 197 pages, notes, bibliography, index, Viking Press, 0-670-86069-7)
This startling and revealing new interpretation of Jungs life and psychology is based on the insight that he was essentially a Taoist. Drawing throughout on Jungs own letters, aphorisms, and other writings, The Tao of Jung looks at Jung through six crises of his personal development, including his break with Freud and his later work with the I Ching.
In structure the book is modeled on the classic Tao Te Chingthe worlds most translated book after the Bible. David Rosen traces parallels between Jungs natural world of the psyche and that of Taoist philosophy, exploring the integration of opposites such as shadow/persona, yin/yang, dark/light, feminine/masculine; the Great Mother as the origin of all things; the I Ching and synchronicity; the Way of Integrity and individuation; and the need to release the ego and surrender to the Self or Tao. It is an illuminating introduction to both Taoism and Jungian thought. Written with modesty and verve, it offers a fine introduction to Jung and also to Taoism.
TRANSFORMING DEPRESSION: Healing the Soul through Creativity by David Rosen ($14.95, paper, 263 pages, notes, bibliography, index, Arkana Book [Penguin] 0-16-019537-8)
This volume offers an innovative approach to recovery from suicidal depression. Rosen, who has dealt with depression in his own life and the suicides of loved ones, applies Carl Jungs method of active imagination to treating depressed and suicidal individuals. He shows that when people learn to confront the rich images and symbols that emerge from their struggles, they can turn their despair into a fountain of creative energy. He details the paths of four patients whose work in painting, pottery, and dancein conjunction with psychotherapyled them from sorrow to a more meaningful life. Their dramatic paintings illustrate the text. In this groundbreaking work, Dr. Rosen offers depressed individuals, their families, and therapists a lifesaving course in healing the soul through creativity. Though the book itself would not likely reach a clinically depressed person. It does offer hope to people with chronic depressive dispositions.
John Van Eenwyk's Jungian account of chaos theory clarifies the Jungian
account of individuation and archetypes seems to be ever more aware that reality is
processual and procedural more than structural.
Archetypes & Strange Attractors: The Chaotic
World of Symbols by John R. Van Eenwyk ($18.00, paper, 191 pages; glossary, bibliography,
index, Inner City Books, ISBN 0-919123-76-7)
Chaos theory as it relates to Jungian individuation, Jung, symbols and chaos.
|This book is an elaboration of Jung's
ideas in light of what we know from physics and mathematics about complex dynamic
systems. Some of the material may be a bit chewy. But that is necessary to provide as
complete an account as possible of what chaos is, how it appears in our psychological
lives, and what we can do when we find ourselves in the thick of it.
Each of us develops in ways that differ from others. Yet, we all experience roughly the same dynamics in our lives. In order to understand how this is possible, we must first consider the role that symbols play in our development.
Symbols occupy a unique place in the history of humankind, for their apprehension and interpretation lifts us above the level of mindless drudges toiling incessantly at the task of survival. Symbols move us beyond ourselves, beyond our perspectives, assumptions, beliefs and, fragile as they are, our certainties. Symbols reflect our ideals and spur us on to higher levels of existence. Unfortunately, they can just as often land us in lower ones, for symbols are ambiguous. They can lead to better, more humane and dignified relations with one another, or to the most horrifying exploitations.
Jung spent a lifetime analyzing symbols. He believed that their ambiguity derives from a fundamental dynamic within the psyche-the tension of opposites.
Archetypes & Strange Attractors builds on Jung's research. It seeks to clarify how symbols work, how they accomplish what they do; it is about the mechanics of our interactions with them. These concerns are more than academic. Studying what symbols do, clarifies what symbols are. This, in turn, helps us to interact with them more effectively when they appear. And that, ultimately, helps us to manage the power they exert on us.
The danger of possession by symbols is very real and not to be underestimated. They can be powerful motivations for constructive growth or for destructive manipulation. Which side wins out depends on the extent of our understanding of the role of symbols in psychological development. Only when we understand and recognize the dynamics of symbols can we have the freedom to use them in the service of the highest ideals to which we aspire.
Humankind seems always at the crossroads of its destiny. Perhaps if we better understood how we arrive there, we could better understand which way to turn. The premise of this book is that insight into the journey is synonymous with knowledge of the mechanics of symbols.
Jung believed that in the dynamics of the psyche chaos is inevitable. Consequently, he focused a great deal of attention on developing the means to find patterns in that chaos. The field of science known as "chaos theory" now suggests that his theories could be verified quantitatively were we to have the ability to keep track of all the variants.
Analytical psychology and physical and mathematical science all employ virtually identical metaphors to understand particular phenomena, but this does not guarantee that they are accurate metaphors or that they describe the same phenomena. The evidence is growing, however, that chaos theory and analytical psychology are describing similar dynamics, albeit in very different realms.
One of the most important implications of the correspondence between Jung's theories and chaos research is that fantasies about order as the most desirable state of being are slowly giving way to the realization that chaos is far healthier than previously imagined. With regard to psychological development and the individuation process, chaos may be not only unavoidable but necessary.
From the preface to Archetypes & Strange Attractors: The Chaotic World of Symbols by John R. Van Eenwyk
Atwood, G.E., Stolorow, R.D. (1977). Metapsychology, reification, representational world of C.G.Jung., Int. Rev. Psychoanal., 4:197-214.
Bennet, E. (1966). What Jung Really Said., London: Macdonald.
Carotenuto, A. (1982). A Secret Symmetry. Sabina Spielrein Between Jung and Freud., New York: Pantheon Books.
Glover, E. (1950). Freud or Jung., N.Y.: W.W. Norton
Hopcke, R. H. (1989). A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Boston: Shambhala
Jacobi, J. (1940). Die Psychologie von C.G. Jung (The Psychology of C.G. Jung)., Zurich: Rascher Verlag
Jacobi, J. (Basch, K.W., trans.) (1942). The Psychology of C.G. Jung., London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner &Co.
Jacoby, M. (1990). Individuation and Narcissism: The Psychology of the Self in Jung and Kohut, London: Routledge
Kerr, J. (1993). A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein, New York: Knopf
Rosenzweig, S. (1992). Frued,Jung,Hall the king-maker.The historic expedition,to America, Seattle/Toronto:Hogrefe & Huber Publish.
Samuels, Andrew (1996). Jung's return from banishment, Psychoanal. Rev., 83:469-489
Samuels, A. (1985). Eros in transf.-countertransference: Jung's alchemical metaphor.., Int. Rev. Psychoanal., 12:199-214.
Samuels, A. (1985). Jung and the Post-Jungians., London/Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Satinover, J. (1986). Jung's lost contribution to the dilemma of narcissism., J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 34:401-438.
Schultz, D. (1990). Intimate Friends, Dangerous Rivals: The Turbulent Relationship Between Freud and Jung, Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher
Sedgwick, D. (1993). Jung and Searles., London/New York:Routledge
Shamdasani, S. (1996). The psychology of kundalini yoga. Notes of the seminar given in 1932 by C.G.Jung., Princeton, NJ:Princeton Univ. Press
Smith, R.C. (1996). The wounded Jung. Effects of Jung's relationship on his life and work., Evanston, IL:Northwestern Univ. Press
Steele, R. (1982). Freud and Jung. Conflicts of Interpretation., London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Stein, M. (1985). Jung's Treatment of Chr;istianity. The Psychotherapy of a Religious Tradition., Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications.
Stein, M. Ed (1995). Jung on evil., Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
Stevens, A. (1990). On Jung, London: Routledge
Young-Eisendrath, P. & Hall, J. (1991). Jung's Self Psychology: A Constructivist Perspective, New York: Guilford
of the Soul : The Practice of Jung's Psychology
June Singer / Paperback / Published 1994
The Interactive Field in Analysis (Chiron Clinical Series)
Murray Stein(Editor) / Paperback / Published 1995
Jung Lexicon : A Primer of Terms and Concepts (Studies in
Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, No 47)
Daryl Sharp, C. J. Selections Jung / Paperback / Published 1991
Jungian Analysis (The Reality of the Psyche Series)
Murray Stein(Preface) / Paperback / Published 1995
Psychopathology : Contemporary Jungian Perspectives
Andrew Samuels(Editor) / Paperback / Published 1999
Contemporary Jungian Analysis : Post-Jungian Perspectives
from the Society of Analytical Psychology
Ian Alister(Editor), et al / Hardcover / Published 1998
Cult Fictions : C.G. Jung and the Founding of Analytical
Sonu Shamdasani / Hardcover / Published 1998
Practical Jung : Nuts and Bolts of Jungian Psychotherapy
Harry A. Wilmer / Paperback / Published 1988
Send mail to email@example.com questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright Last modified: January 24, 2016
insert content here