CRC Handbook Of Thermodynamic Data Of Polymer Solutions At Elevated Pressures by Christian Wohlfarth (CRC Press) This handbook provides the only complete collection of high-pressure thermodynamic data pertaining to polymer solutions at elevated pressures to date — all critical data for understanding the physical nature of these mixtures and applicable to a number of industrial and laboratory processes in polymer science, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, and biotechnology. More
Elementorganic Monomers: Technology, Properties, Applications by L. M. Khananashvili, O. V. Mukbaniani, G. E. Zaikov (New Concepts in Polymer Science: Brill Academic Publishers) The chemical industry in our country and abroad is rapidly developing. It is only natural that the young industry of elementorganic monomers, oligomers and polymers should develop at the same rate. The numerous valuable and sometimes unique properties of these substances account for their wide application in various industries, households, medicine and cutting-edge technologies. That is why contemporary industry produces more than 500 types of silicone monomers, oligomers and polymers, to say nothing of other elementorganic compounds. The synthesis of these elementorganic compounds is based on many different reactions.
New fields of science and technology, the use of high and ultra low temperatures, high pressures and high vacuum, the developments in electrification, mechanical engineering, radio engineering and radio electronics, the design of supersonic aeroplanes and artificial Earth satellites – all this calls for new materials with valuable performance characteristics. It is well known that the surface of load-carrying machine parts at very high speeds can heat to 300°C upwards. Long-term resistance to such temperatures can be found only in polymers with chains made up of thermostable fragments. Particularly interesting in this respect are elementorganic polymers with inorganic and organo-inorganic molecular chains.
Elementorganic polymers are not only highly thermostable, but also perform well under low temperatures, sunlight, humidity, weather, etc. Besides, their physics and chemistry change little in a wide temperature range. Thus, these polymers (especially silicones) are widely and effectively used in the electrical, radio, coal, mechanical rubber, aircraft, metallurgical, textile and other industries. They are of great utility not only in industry, but also in households and in medicine, where their merits can hardly be overestimated.
Silicone polymers can render various materials unwettable (hydrophobic), which can be used in the manufacture of waterproof clothes, shoes, and construction materials. Silicone antifoam agents destroy foam, which is difficult to deal with in many spheres (in pharmaceutics, as well as in sugar-refining, wine-making and other food industries). They are indispensable even in contemporary medicine: these substances help to eliminate blood foaming during major surgeries, when great amounts of blood have
to be drawn from the body. In this case, if surgical instruments are treated with silicone oligomers, there is no danger of tiny air bubbles (thrombi) entering blood and causing immediate death. Silicone oligomers are also widely used in the production of hydraulic fluids and lubricants to assure the performance of devices in a wide temperature range (from -120-140 to 250-350°C).
Each year sees more and more silicone elastomers used in the production of thermostable rubbers, and silicone polymers of various composition used for nonmetal composites. At present there are few industries where silicone polymers and materials based on them are not used to a greater or lesser extent. With that in mind, it is small wonder that the silicone industry is gathering such momentum all over the world.
Other elementorganic compounds, e.g. organoaluminum compounds, are extremely valuable components of the Ziegler-Natta catalysts, widely used in the production of stereoregular polymers. They are also used in the synthesis of higher fatty alcohols, carboxylic acids, a-olefines, cycloolefines and other important compounds. Organotin compounds are increasingly used as catalysts, as stabilizers for polymers and polymer-based materials, etc. Organolead compounds, tetraalkyl derivatives in particular, are used as antiknock substances in engine fuels. Organophosphorus compounds have found a wide application as pesticides, plasticizers and fire-resistant agents in polymers
This list, by no means complete, testifies to a constantly growing role of elementorganic compounds in industry, economy and households, which is to promote further development of the technology of elementorganic compounds.
The need to publish this book arose with the scientific and technical developments of the last decade, the reconstruction and technical renovation of existing factories, as well as fundamental changes in some syntheses of elementorganic monomers and polymers. Moreover, nowadays it is essential to train highly-skilled chemical engineers with a comprehensive knowledge of current chemistry, of the production technology of elementorganic monomers and polymers, and of their characteristics and applications.
One of the most important contemporary features of scientific and technological advance is a wide use of polymers and polymer-based materials virtually in all spheres of economy and in households; moreover, the application range of synthetic materials is wider every year. Thus, further development of economy requires an increased production of various polymer materials with valuable properties. Many polymer materials are based on synthetic elementorganic oligomers and polymers used in the manufacture of plastics, sealants and rubbers; paint, anticorrosive and other coatings; insulating, lubricating and construction materials, etc. Nowadays it is hard to find an industry which does not use elementorganic compounds, because their valuable technical characteristics are combined with convenient and highly productive techniques to process them into materials and products of various shapes and sizes. All this promises a big future to elementorganic oligomers and polymers.
Carbon-chain superpolymers (with chains consisting only of carbon atoms) are as a rule not heat- and weather-resistant enough; that is why synthetic chemists have always aimed to synthesise new, more heat- and weather-resistant polymers. This aim was one of the reasons for creating high-molecular compounds with chains made up of various atoms (Si, AI, B, Ti, etc.) and oxygen or nitrogen.
The production scale of elementorganic compounds, especially elemen- torganic oligomers and polymers, as well as extremely diverse requirements to the materials based on these compounds in different economic spheres (medicine, transportation, agriculture, etc.) and advances in aeroplane and rocket building, microelectronics, radio and electrical engineering pose new problems to elementorganic chemistry. Among these problems are:
Expanding the polymer operating temperature range to produce nonmetallic materials (plastics, rubbers, fibres, paint coatings, etc.);
Improving mechanical characteristics of synthesised polymers and materials based on them;
Improving their physical and chemical inertness (i.e. resistance to weather effects, light, radiation, liquids);
Creating the polymers which can be the basis of nonflammable materials with a required set of technical characteristrics.
These problems can be successfully solved by finding techniques to synthesise new polymers with a varied molecular structure, by modifying known polymers, as well as by polymer alloying, i.e. adding small amounts of substances with a composition different from that of the polymer.
Because high-molecular compounds in the form of various nonmetallic materials are so widely used, especially in crowded places, a serious problem nowadays is to create nonmetallic materials which do not sustain combustion or are totally nonflammable.
Polymer heat resistance largely depends on their macromolecular structure, and their thermal-oxidative stability and nonflammability depend on the type and number of the organic groups surrounding the chains. Hence the importance of combining the optimal lattice density in macromolecules with a convenient type and number of lateral organic groups. In this case the greatest effect can be expected from polyorganosiloxanes with a branched (I), ladder (II) and spirocyclic (III) molecular structure, or from polyorganosiloxanes where these structures are combined with methyl and phenyl lateral groups. Methyl groups oxidise easier than phenyl groups, but, if they are replaced by oxygen, the weight loss of the polymer is insignificant. In I and II structure polymers with methyl groups the carbon content does not exceed 8-12%. These polymers have already been used in the technology for obtaining nonflammable fibreglass and asbestos plastics.
Polymers with structures II and III are of great interest in the design of heat resistant nonmetallic materials. These blocks can polymerise without emitting volatile matter and, consequently, ensure contact molding of glass and asbestos plastics, whereas copolymers with a combination of structures II and III seem to be able to transform into latticed polymers with cyclic or polycyclic silicone groups in cross-link sites between linear sections. In this case the cross-link sites, depending on the size and structure of the cycle, may be subject to conformational transitions when stressed; consequently, the rigidity of the cross-link sites will be very different from the one typical of latticed polymers. These polymers commonly have carbon atoms in the cross-link sites and are currently studied. At present we distinguish polymers with various structures of the macromolecular chain.
Of particular interest is the study of synthesis reactions of linear polymers, the chains of which consist of flexible linear sections and rigid mono- and polycyclic fragments more elementorganic compounds in various fields of technology and in households. Most polymers with these molecular chains have already been synthesised in labs, but only few of them have been implemented in industry. Therefore, the nearest and most urgent task of chemical engineers is to unite their efforts with scientists in order to design and implement convenient and accessible technological processes of the synthesis of elementorganic polymers. In the nearest future chemical engineers should pay close attention to the design and implementation of new ways of obtaining elementorganic, silicone and elementosilicone polymers in particular, by finding efficient techniques to synthesise block oligomers (prepolymers) of a given composition and their subsequent transformation into polymers with optimal characteristics.
In this case the combination of fragments with flexible and rigid molecular chains in linear chains can help to synthesise elastomers and plastomers with a higher thermostability.
To improve mechanical and some other specific properties, one might find interesting the synthesis of comb-shaped polymers with a uni- and bidirectional molecular structure.
Wide opportunities for the controlled variation of properties are offered by the synthesis of block copolymers with organo-inorganic main molecular chains, as well as by the synthesis of block copolymers containing besides silicon other elements in the form of various groups (spirotitaniumsiloxane, spiroironsiloxane, phosphonitrilsiloxane, carboransiloxane), which will undoubledly lead to the creation of new technically valuable materials.
The results that have been achieved at present still do not meet the demands of our economy in the production scale of elementorganic oligomers and polymers. We need to increase the production pace to use
The synthesis of silicone polymers from prepolymers will allow one to obtain not only polyorganosiloxanes, but also polyelementorganosiloxanes of a more regular structure (unlike the existing processes of hydrolytic co-condensation of various organochlorosilanes which form polymers of a static composition). Therefore, the polymers obtained in this way will have improved chemical and physicochemical properties, and materials based on them will have valuable performance characteristics. Moreover, a new technique for obtaining polymers based on block oligomers will help to build harmless and wasteless industries, which is especially important from the ecological point of view.
A promising area is the design of modern ceramic and glass ceramic materials based on high purity elementorganic compounds Si(OR)4, Al(OR)3, B(OR)3, etc.), because traditional materials (metals, metal-based alloys, plastics, etc.) do not meet contemporary technical requirements to products designed to operate under extreme conditions.
We understand modem ceramics as all strong inorganic materials which are processed at high temperatures and have superior physicochemical and heat resistance characteristics. The range of their application is very wide. For instance, modern ceramics is used as a substrate for catalysts, as well as in the production of ball bearings and various elements for electronic equipment, atomic power plant and thermonuclear fusion equipment. Refractory ceramics is one of the best heat insulators for aircraft, rocket, space technology, etc. Let us give just one example of the advisability and economic feasibility of the use of modern ceramics in turbine and diesel engines instead of doped heat resistant alloys. The use of ceramics in this case helps to increase the operating temperature in the combustion chamber up to 1400-1500°C without any additional cooling of the given products, which reduces the fuel consumption almost twofold.
Glass-ceramic materials can be used to produce elements of fibre optics, translucent ceramics, photochromic and laser glasses, oxide conductive glasses, etc.
The advantages of modern ceramic and glass-ceramic materials are realised only if they are produced not by the traditional technique, but using the recent so-called sol-gel technology. One of the most important sol-gel methods is based on the hydrolitic condensation of tetraethoxysilane in the presence of water-soluble metal salts, or on hydrolitic cocondenstation of tetraethoxysilane and alcoxides of aluminum and other metals, followed by hydrolysate gelating and processing the gels at 500-600°C. We should note here that in order to obtain modem ceramics and glass-ceramics, one needs compounds with an exceptionally small amount of foreign impurities, since impurities interfere with obtaining ceramic materials of required quality.
Aerogel possesses excellent heat insulating properties: felt-tip pens lying on Aerogel are protected from the flames below and do not melt. Aerogel, which is 99.9% air and 0.1% silicone-dioxide gel, is subjected to maximum desiccation. This preserves its original size and shape, because normal evaporation can destroy the gel. Of all materials known, Aerogel is the least dense (it is only 3 times denser than air), but is a unique insulator. Its insulating properties are 39 times higher than those of fibreglass plastic; at the same time its density is 1000 times less than that of glass, which alsohas a silicone structure. Aerogel can sustain temperatures up to 1400°C. A man-sized aerogel block, which weighs not more than 400 g, supports up to half a ton of weight.
Aerogel is a special materials with extreme micron porosity. It consists of separate particles of several nanometers, interconnected in a high-porosity branched structure. It was made on the basis of gel consisting of colloid silicone, the structural parts of which are filled with solvents. Aerogel is subjected to high temperature under pressure which rises to the critical point; it is very strong and easily endures stress both at lift-off and in the space environment. This material has already been tried in space by Spacelab II and Eureca shuttles, as well as by the American Mars Pathfinder Rover.
The growing amount of research of the application of modern ceramics in various industries, as well as their virtually unlimited possibilities suggest that in the nearest decade these materials will be widely used in various spheres of economy. Recently a lot of interest has been drawn to the synthesis of silicone and other elementorganic highly branched oligomers with a so-called dendrimer structure. Oligomers of this kind are obtained by multistage synthesis. For example, highly branched oligomethylsiloxanes of the given structure are obtained in the following way. The first stage is the reaction between methyltrichlorosilane and sodiumoximethyldiethoxisilane.The second stage is the selective replacement of ethoxyl groups with chlorine atoms using sulfuryl chloride.These reactions yield a second, and then a third "generation" of dendrimers, which will eventually contain 22 silicon atoms.
We should also develop the processes of producing filled polymers during their synthesis, which is economically feasible and justifiable. Researchers have already developed a process to obtain filled conductive silicone rubbers by the technique stated above.
In the conclusion we should say that the chemistry of synthetic elementorganic polymers is a young science and still has a lot to discover. The possibilities of elementorganic polymer chemistry, and consequently of their production development, are truly unlimited. If originally synthetic polymers appeared as a result of emulating natural compounds and as their substitutes, nowadays we have many polymers which resulted from scientific and engineering creativity and have no counterparts in nature.
The Structural Stabilization of Polymers: Fractal Models by G. V.
Kozlov, G. E. Zaikov (New Concepts in Polymer Science: VSP
International (Brill) This monograph deals with the structural aspects of
transport processes of gases, physical ageing and thermo-oxidative degradation
of polymers in detail. Fractal analysis, cluster models of the polymer
structure's amorphous state as well as irreversible aggregation models are used
as main structural models. It is shown that the polymer structure is often a
more important parameter than its chemical construction. Another significant
aspect is the structural role in polymer melts oxidation.
The basis for understanding of structural stabilization gives anomalous diffusion of oxidant molecules on the fractal structure for both solid state polymers and polymeric melts. The important part of this problem is structure connectivity characterized by its spectral dimension. Therefore branched (cross-linked) polymers have smaller diffusivity in comparison with linear polymers. Fractal mathematics is used throughout to sharpen measures and tighten explanations. The volume could have used an English-language editor.
The term "structural stabilization" in reference to polymers in general and to their melts specifically has been known for some time. However, earlier it was supposed, that the structural stabilization applicable only to solid state of polymers, where the structure, especially for semicrystalline polymers, is pronounced, whereas polymeric melt was considered as structureless state. Besides, the absence up to the last time of quantitative structural models of polymers in any of the mentioned states forced to restort to indirect methods of the structure estimation. So, the authors believe, that the structural stabilization idea consists in such structural-physical material modification, which supresses a molecular mobility in polymer, especially small-scale high-frequency motionts responsible for chemical reactions. The molecular mobility reduction decreases chemical reactivity and rises the material stability. The attempt of consideration of topological disorder influence (the degree of polymer chains entanglement) on thermooxidative degradation processes in papers was undertaken. It is quite easy to see, that in both cases indirect characteristics of structure were used.
The notion of structure is key in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and other sciences. General conception of structure is satisfied by the Kreber definition: “Each system consists of elements, ordered by a definite way and connected by definite relations. Under system structure we understand the mode of elements organization and character of connection between them.”
It is obvious, that in polymer's case the structural element of the smallest order is a statistical segment, which expresses in essence the individuality of any polymer. In polymer's physics structure is defined, as micro- and macrostructure of polymer and also as the connection structure-composition-property.
The rapid development of fractal analysis methods in the last 20 years allowed to change the shaped situation. It is experimentally shown, that the solid polymers are fractal objects in interval of linear scales ~ 350 A. Besides, as Vilgis showed, the macromolecular coil in melt is the fractal having dimension These results involve two very important consequences. Firstly, direct, but not indirect, characteristic of polymer's structure appears in both mentioned states, since fractal (Hausdorff) dimension characterizes the elements distribution of macromolecular coil in space, i.e., truly structural parameter. Secondly, the correct description of fractal objects is possible only within the framework of fractal analysis and any application of Euclidean geometry is more or less precise approximation. Proceeding from this, in the base of assumed structural treatment of thermooxidative degradation processes is appointed the postulate of fractal nature of polymer's structure.
At the beginning of the monograph the authors briefly consider the physical bases of applied structural models and their main parameters in determination of methods. Further the structural aspects of gas transport processes, physical aging and thermooxidative degradation in polymers is described. As the main structural models the fractal analysis and connected with it cluster model of polymer's amorphous state structure and irreversible aggregation models demonstrated. Such treatment allows them to demonstrate that the polymer's structure is often more important factor at thermooxidative degradation than their chemical constitution. The other important moment, than needs to be mentioned is the role of structure in polymer melts oxidation. As stated above, earlier this role was very much underestimated.
The base for understanding of structural stabilization gives anomalous diffusion of oxidant molecules on fractal structure of both solid polymers and polymeric melts. The important part of this problem is structure connectivity characterized by its spectral dimension. In virtue of this, branched (cross-linked) polymers have smaller diffusivity in comparison with linear.
The physical aging of polymers reflects their thermodynamically non-equilibrium (fractal) structure. Such approachs allow the authors to obtain the quantitative estimation of structure (and, consequently, properties) change of polymers as a function of aging duration.
For characterization of polymeric melt structure the macromolecular coil fractal dimension is used. Such approaches allow the authors to move toward quantitative estimation and prediction of kinetic curves of oxygen consumption and thermooxidative degradation limiting degree. Besides, they obtained the analytical structural criterion of transition of kinetic curves type from autodecelerated up to autoaccelerated. The fractional derivation using allows them to introduce new postulate in principal: oxidation is subjected to only a part of polymeric coil as determined by its structure.
Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, 3rd Edition, 12
Volume Set by Herman F. Mark (Wiley-Interscience)
Polymer science has come to an ubiquitous maturity in the last half of the 20th
century, impacting most aspects of manufacture, medicine, and innumerable
products and processes. As this 3rd
edition of the Encyclopedia of Polymer
Science and Technology now reaches print, one can say this most commercially
viable of sciences has many practical extensions and a some health and
environmental risks as industry and
business develop and exploit the many useful possiblities of this science.
This completely new Third Edition of the
Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology
brings the state-of-the-art to the 21st century, with coverage of
nanotechnology, new imaging and analytical techniques, new methods of controlled
polymer architecture, biomimetics, and more. Whereas earlier editions published
one volume at a time, the third edition is being published in 3 Parts of 4
volumes each. The first section has become available and offers a rich
compendium of the state of polymer science.
So what is a polymer? If you need to ask then this reference work is likely to offer riches and detail well beyond one’s competence. One needs the basics of chemistry and mathematics as well as some physics in order to follow these useful articles.
A polymer is a chemical compound with high molecular weight consisting of a number of structural units linked together by covalent chemical bonds. The simple molecules that may become structural units in a polymer are themselves called monomers; two monomers combine to form a dimer, and three monomers, a trimer. A structural unit is a group having two or more bonding sites. A bonding site may be created by the loss of an atom or group, such as H or OH, or by the breaking up of a double or triple bond, as when ethylene, H2C and CH2, is converted into a structural unit for polyethylene, -H2C-CH2-. In a linear polymer, the structural units are connected in a chain arrangement and thus need only be bifunctional, that is to have two bonding sites. When the structural unit is trifunctional (has three bonding sites), a nonlinear, or branched, polymer results. Ethylene, styrene, and ethylene glycol are examples of bifunctional monomers, while glycerin and divinyl benzene are both polyfunctional. Polymers containing a single repeating unit, such as polyethylene, are called homopolymers. Polymers containing two or more different structural units, such as phenol-formaldehyde, are called copolymers. All polymers can be classified as either addition polymers or condensation polymers. An addition polymer is one in which the molecular formula of the repeating structural unit is identical to that of the monomer, e.g., polyethylene and polystyrene. A condensation polymer is one in which the repeating structural unit contains fewer atoms than that of the monomer or monomers because of the splitting off of water or some other substance, for example, polyesters and polycarbonates.
Many physical properties of a polymer depend on the molecular weight. There are several different definitions of molecular weight for a polymer. A desired property may improve with increasing molecular weight (the law of diminishing returns comes into play), but the processability of the polymer decreases with molecular weight, so a compromise molecular weight must be used for the product.
Molecular Weight can be determined by the following techniques: End-group Titration, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Light Scattering, Osmometry, Sedimentation, Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Viscosity.
Many polymers occur in nature, such as silk, cellulose, natural rubber, and proteins. In addition, a large number of polymers have been synthesized in the laboratory, leading to such commercially important products as plastics, synthetic fibers, and synthetic rubber.
Polymers make a
bullet proof vests, and add the bounce to a trampoline. Polymer Science
landmarks include Gough’s experiments with elasticity of natural rubber in 1806,
and Faraday figures out the empirical formula C5H8 for natural rubber twenty
years later. Alexander Parkes patents in 1843 for a fabric waterproofing
technology that made use of natural rubber. Cellulose Nitrate, a sort of
primitive plastic was presented to the Great International Exhibition in
The preface of the first edition of the
Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology which began publication in
1964 started with the paragraph, "Since Goodyear's discovery of the
vulcanization of rubber in 1839, Hyatt's invention of plasticized cellulose
nitrate in 1870, Chardonnet's manufacture of a man-made fiber in 1884, and
Baekeland's synthesis of phenolic resins in 1909, the pace of polymer science
and technology has been accelerating dramatically. This has been the case
particularly during the last forty years (Ed. Note: 1920s-1960s), when
astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the nature of macromolecules
and the mechanism of their formation, in devising entirely new classes of giant
molecules, in finding practical methods of fabricating them, and in inventing
innumerable ways of employing them for human benefit. We have truly entered the
Age of Polymers."
The second edition (published 1985-1990) captured a more
mature science, but one still exciting. The development of entirely new classes
of polymers had essentially stopped, but modification of polymer properties by
synthesis, blending, and processing became highly developed. Continued
elucidation of structure and polymerization mechanism lead to vastly improved
control of the polymerization process and products. The pervasiveness and
importance of polymers to all facets of existence grew as the Age of Polymers
Now in 2003 in a new century, nearly 40 years after the
beginning of the Encyclopedia, the Age of Polymers continues and research
flourishes, aided by new, improved and increasingly sophisticated analytical
techniques and methods.
The purpose for publishing remains the same as it has been
from the beginning, that is, to present authoritative articles, written and
reviewed by specialists from all over the world, to serve as a unique source of
reference to the entire field of polymer science and technology. The growth of
the importance of biological topics is reflected as well.
The impact of the blossoming of computer technology on both
polymer science and publishing must surely be mentioned. We are well into the
"Information Age." Even in 1964 the first edition preface said, "With the
increasing volume of technical literature, it has become an unfortunate fact
that even mature scientists and technologists are no longer able to absorb the
entire flow of articles, particularly those outside of their immediate
interest." By how many orders of magnitude should this statement now be
To utilize the advantages of electronic publishing in order to satisfy the need for organized, up-to-date coverage of essential topics, this new edition of the Encyclopedia began publication Online in October, 2001. One can consult the Encyclopedia at www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com
The Third Edition is an entirely new encyclopedia in a
format familiar to those acquainted with the earlier editions. All of the
articles in this new edition have been rewritten and updated and many new
subjects have been added, reflecting the progress and evolution of polymer
science and technology. The results, however, will be familiar to the users of
the earlier editions: comprehensive, authoritative, accessible, lucid. The
Encyclopedia is an indispensable information source for all producers and users
of polymeric materials and those engaged in fundamental research regarding
Earlier print editions published one volume at a time in
alphabetical order. In the new electronic publishing age we can offer a more
consolidated schedule. The new edition will publish in 3 Parts of 4 volumes
each. Each of these 4-volume Parts is a selection of the latest in polymer
science as published in the Online edition. The A-Z format is maintained in the
Parts for ease in locating articles. A comprehensive Index is provided for each
Part and will be cumulative in the second and third Parts. Thus, the 12-volume
set will be completed by 2004.
The article titles selected for inclusion in the Encyclopedia have been carefully chosen to present a balanced account of all facets of polymer science and technology. Articles fall into more than a dozen subject categories, some of which are listed below with representative titles form Volumes 1-4. The most highly populated category is Polymeric Materials. Some titles fit into more than one category, e.g., ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS.
Biomaterials and Biopolymers
Chitin and Chitosan
Characterization And Analysis
Atomic Force Microscopy
Computers in Polymer Science
Modeling of Polymer Processing and Properties
Processing and Finishing
Surfaces and Interfaces
Regardless of the
title, all subjects are treated strictly from the polymer point of view. Titles
have been chosen so as to avoid having too many articles beginning with the
letter P. So, most vinyl-type polymers are to be found under the name of the
monomers followed by the word "Polymers", e.g., ETHYLENE POLYMERS. Step-growth
polymers, however, are more likely to be found under the "poly" designation,
e.g., POLYAMIDES. Copolymers are usually discussed in the article named after
the principal component.
Extensive use is made of cross references to related
article titles. Where an article title does not correspond to the more
conventional term, a cross reference is provided as a main entry to refer the
reader to the article title used by the Encyclopedia, e.g., POLYACRYLONITRILE.
See ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS.
Bibliographies are designed to provide supporting
references for many statements in the article and to call the reader's attention
to particularly good treatments of the subject. Key patents are also cited.
Although in many cases the bibliographies are extensive, they may not be as
exhaustive as in a review article or in a monograph.
The reader should bear in mind that the Encyclopedia is
continually evolving Online. Visit the site,
www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com, often for a "Preview of Coming Attractions"
Also, you can use the Online Search function to help find items, if the Index
and Cross References of the print Encyclopedia have not located the information
that you seek.
Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology...as an online service
includes all the print articles with updates and is coupled with a powerful
search engine that allows quick, precise searching, and an intuitive interface
that makes the database easy to use. Search by keyword or browse the menu of
topics to select the subjects that interest you most. An index and chemical
thesaurus help you drill down to precisely the information you need, while a
dynamic table of contents enables you to browse the Table of Contents and then
jump to any article.
The Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, is an invaluable resource for researchers in both library and professional settings, providing information about polymers, plastics, fibers, biomaterials, elastomers, and polymerization processes. And since Wiley InterScience now allows you to search across databases, you can simultaneously search the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology with Wiley's extensive collection of polymer journals and a variety of other reference sources—including the Wiley Database of Polymer Properties, the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, and Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry—to make one’s research even more efficient.
insert content here