A Real-Time Approach to Process Control by William Y. Svrcek, Donald P. Mahoney, Brent R. Young (Wiley) provides the reader with both a theoretical and practical introduction to this increasingly important approach. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, this text introduces all of the applied fundamentals of process control from instrumentation to process dynamics, PID loops and tuning, to distillation, multi-loop and plant-wide control. In addition, readers come away with a working knowledge of the three most popular dynamic simulation packages. The text carefully balances theory and practice by offering readings and lecture materials along with hands-on workshops that provide a 'virtual' process on which to experiment and from which to learn modern, real time control strategy development.
As well as a general updating of the book specific changes include:
A new section on boiler control in the chapter on common control loops
A major rewrite of the chapters on distillation column control and multiple single-loop control schemes
The addition of new figures throughout the text
Workshop instructions will be altered to suit the latest versions of HYSYS, ASPEN and DYNSIM simulation software
A new solutions manual for the workshop problems
Throughout the chemical industry, ever more emphasis is being placed upon extracting increasingly greater value from existing plant equipment. Improved process control is almost unique in its ability to deliver substantial operational improvements with little, or no additional, capital investment. As such, process control has rapidly become one of the most important and sought-after skills within the chemical industry. The industry needs graduates educated and trained in the latest and most relevant skills, as its practitioners rely heavily on commercially available process simulation tools and hands-on, time-based control strategy development techniques. A Real-Time Approach to Process Control brings together introductory process control education and real industry practice. While avoiding the use of complex and highly mathematical techniques, this text focuses instead on the more practical and applied time-domain techniques derived from modern process simulation. Assuming no prior knowledge of process control, this text provides both a theoretical and practical introduction to this increasingly important area. The use of computers in process control is a central theme running throughout this text, and their use in simulations and the software is carefully introduced. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of instrumentation, process, design versus controllability trade-offs, control loop configurations and tuning, and practical techniques for the control of vessels, distillation columns and basic plant-wide control considerations. A Real-Time Approach to Process Control:
Is an applied introduction to the theory and practice of modern process control.
Avoids the use of complex mathematics, focusing instead on real-time systems.
Introduces dynamic simulation software and enables the reader to understand how and why it is used.
Includes many examples and carefully designed workshops, providing hands-on experience.
Has its own Web site at http://www.ench.ucalgary.ca/~real-time.
This essential introduction to modern process control is suitable
for students taking process control courses, as well as engineers
interested in learning more about real-time systems and applications
of dynamic simulation software.
Excerpt: For decades, the subject of control theory has been taught using transfer functions, frequency-domain analysis, and Laplace transform mathematics. For linear systems (like those from the electromechanical areas from which these classical control techniques emerged) this approach is well suited. As an approach to the control of chemical processes, which are often characterized by nonlinearity and large doses of dead time, classical control techniques have some limitations.
In today's simulation-rich environment, the right combination of hardware and software is available to implement a 'hands-on' approach to process control system design. Engineers and students alike are now able to experiment on virtual plants that capture the important non-idealities of the real world, and readily test even the most outlandish of control structures without resorting to non-intuitive mathematics or to placing real plants at risk.
Thus, the basis of this text is to provide a practical, hands-on introduction to the topic of process control by using only time-based representations of the process and the associated instrumentation and control. We believe this book is the first to treat the topic without relying at all upon Laplace transforms and the classical, frequency-domain techniques. For those students wishing to advance their knowledge of process control beyond this first, introductory exposure, we highly recommend understanding, even mastering, the classical techniques. However, as an introductory treatment of the topic, and for those chemical engineers not wishing to specialize in process control, but rather to extract something practical and applicable, we believe our approach hits the mark.
This text is organized into a framework that provides relevant theory, along with a series of hands-on workshops that employ computer simulations that test and allow for exploration of the theory. Chapter 1 provides a historical overview of the field. Chapter 2 introduces the very important and often overlooked topic of instrumentation. In Chapter 3 we ground the reader in some of the basics of single input – single output systems. Feedback control, the elements of control loops, system dynamics including capacitance and dead time, and system modelling are introduced here. Chapter 4 highlights the various PID control modes and provides a framework for understanding control-loop design and tuning. Chapter 5 focuses specifically on tuning. Armed with an understanding of feedback control, control loop structures, and tuning, Chapter 6 introduces some more advanced control configurations including feed-forward, cascade, and override control. Chapter 7 provides some practical rules of thumb for designing and tuning the more common control loops found in industry. In Chapter 8 we tackle a more complex control problem: the control of distillation columns. As with the rest of this text, a combination of theory and applied methodology is used to provide a practical treatment to this complex topic. Chapter 9 introduces the concept of multiple loop controllers. In Chapter 10 we take a look at some of the important issues relating to the plant-wide control problem. Finally, up-to-date information on computer simulation for the workshops can be found on the book website.
Although this text is designed as an introductory course on process control for senior university students in the chemical engineering curriculum, we believe this text will serve as a valuable desk reference for practising chemical engineers and as a text for technical colleges.
CRC Handbook Of Thermodynamic Data Of Polymer Solutions At Elevated Pressures by Christian Wohlfarth (CRC Press) This handbook provides the only complete collection of high-pressure thermodynamic data pertaining to polymer solutions at elevated pressures to date — all critical data for understanding the physical nature of these mixtures and applicable to a number of industrial and laboratory processes in polymer science, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, and biotechnology.
In response to the increasing commercial interest due to the physico-chemical properties of these solutions, the CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures compiles information on experimental data from hundreds of primary journal articles, dissertations, and other papers into a single source entirely devoted to polymer solutions. The book contains data on vapor–liquid equilibria and gas solubilities, liquid–liquid equilibria, high-pressure fluid phase equilibria for polymer systems in supercritical fluids, enthalpic and volumetric data, and second virial coefficients, all at elevated pressures. An excellent companion to the author's previous publications, the CRC Handbook on Thermodynamic Data of Copolymer Solutions and the CRC Handbook on Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solution, this handbook contains reliable, easy-to-use entries, references, tables, examples, and appendices that provide users with a well-organized, quick route to the data they need.
Provides a complete collection of thermodynamic data of polymer solutions at elevated pressures
Publishes up to 1600 data sets including VLE/gas solubility isotherms, LLE and HPPE, volumetric, enthalpic, and virial coefficient data sets
Uses nearly 650 literature sources, including dissertations and diploma papers Enables quick retrieval of all relevant information from the original literature Provides necessary resources for planning new measurements where data are missing
The CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures is a staple resource for all university libraries as well as private laboratories, particularly for researchers, academics, and engineers who handle polymer systems in supercritical fluids, material science applications such as computerized predictive packages, and chemical and biochemical processes, such as synthesis and characterization, fractionation, separation,
purification, and finishing of polymers and related materials.
Knowledge of thermodynamic data of polymer solutions is a necessity for industrial and laboratory processes. Such data serve as essential tools for understanding the physical behavior of polymer solutions, for studying intermolecular interactions, and for gaining insights into the molecular nature of mixtures. They also provide the necessary basis for any developments of theoretical thermodynamic models. Scientists and engineers in academic and industrial research need such data and will benefit from a careful collection of existing data. The CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures continues the two former ones, the CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Copolymer Solutions and the CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions, in providing a reliable collection of data for polymer solutions from the original literature.
The Handbook is again divided into seven chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) Data and Gas Solubilities at Elevated Pressures, (3) Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures, (4) High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibrium (HPPE) Data of Polymer Solutions, (5) Enthalpy Changes in Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures, (6) PVT Data of Polymers and Solutions, and (7) Pressure Dependence of the Second Virial Coefficients (A2) of Polymer Solutions. Finally, appendices quickly route the user to the desired data sets. Thus, the book covers all the necessary areas for researchers and engineers who work in this field.
In comparison with low-molecular systems, the amount of data for polymer solutions at elevated pressures is still rather small. About 650 literature sources were perused for the purpose of this Handbook, including some dissertations and diploma papers. About 1600 data sets, i.e., about 400 VLE/gas solubility isotherms, 250 LLE and 800 HPPE data sets, a number of volumetric and enthalpic data and some second virial coefficients, are reported. Additionally, tables of systems are provided where results were published only in graphical form in the original literature to lead the reader to further sources. Data are included only if numerical values were published or authors provided their numerical results by personal communication (and I wish to thank all those who did so). No digitized data have been included in this data collection. The Handbook is the first complete overview about this subject in the world's literature. The closing day for the data collection was June, 30, 2004. The Handbook results from parts of a more general database, Thermodynamic Properties of Polymer Systems, which is continuously updated by the author. Thus, the user who is in need of new additional data sets is kindly invited to ask for new information beyond this book via e-mail at email@example.com. Additionally, the author will be grateful to users who call his attention to mistakes and make suggestions for improvements.
The CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures will be useful to researchers, specialists, and engineers working in the fields of polymer science, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, material science, biological science and technology, and those developing computerized predictive packages. The Handbook should also be of use as a data source to Ph.D. students and faculty in Chemistry, Physics, Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, and Materials science departments in universities.
Handbook of Industrial Chemistry by M. Farhat Ali, Bassam El Ali (McGraw-Hill Professional) the definitive guide to manufacturing with organic chemicals: Critical to truly understanding pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, polymers, and plastics, the Handbook of Industrial Chemistry provides the chemical properties and principles for the analyses and processes used in producing non-petroleum-based organic products.
Packed with useful tables, formulas, and equations, this problem-solving handbook provides coverage, which ranges from basic to complex, of the chemical processes for products such as:
Paints, pigments, and industrial coatings
Dyestuffs, and finishing and dyeing of textiles
Non-petroleum processing and petrochemicals
Polymers and plastics
Detailed, expert content you’ll refer to every day:
Safety considerations in process industries * Industrial pollution prevention and waste management * Edible oils, fats, and waxes * Soaps and detergents * Sugar and other sweeteners * Paints, pigments, and industrial coatings * Dyestuffs, and finishing and dyeing of textiles * Industrial fermentation * Pharmaceutical industry * Agrochemicals * Chemical explosives * Petroleum processing and petrochemicals * Polymers and plastics
Excerpt:The organic chemical industry is an important branch of industry and its structure usually centers on petroleum and hydrocarbon derived chemicals. The volume text of available books is generally lacking in covering other very important nonpetroleum-based organic industries such as paints, dyes, edible oils, fats and waxes, soaps and detergents, sugars, fermentation, chemical explosives, and agrochemical industries.
This book focuses primarily on the chemical processing of raw materials other than petroleum and hydrocarbons. These materials are usually converted into useful and profitable products that are, in general, used as consumer goods. The book addresses the needs of both students and practicing chemists and chemical engineers. It is intended to be a primary source of information for the young practicing professionals who wish to broaden their knowledge of the organic process industry as a whole. The book may also serve as a textbook for advanced under-graduate students in industrial chemistry.
Chapter 1 describes the development of the chemical industry and its role in welfare and employment around the world. This chapter shows how raw materials are procured and converted to consumer products.
Chapter 2 discusses safety aspects in organic industries and methods to protect the workers from hazards such as exposure to dangerous chemicals, heat, pressures, high electric fields, accelerating objects, and other sources of hazards.
Chapter 3 deals with the sources of pollution caused by raw materials, products, and wastes in petroleum, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, and other industries. The growing public concerns over the safety of chemicals in the environment, and the efforts by the governments and industries for their control, are discussed.
Chapter 4 presents the chemistry and technology of edible oil, fat, and wax processing including refining, recovery, crystallization, interesterification, and hydrogenation. The key oxidation reactions of lipids leading to quality deterioration of processed and unprocessed foods, and the mechanism of the action of the antioxidants in improving oxidation stability of foods are discussed.
Chapter 5 highlights the soap and detergent industry. The raw materials, important processes of production, and economic importance of the soap and detergent industry are elaborated.
Chapter 6 covers one of the most widely distributed and abundant organic chemicals—the sugars. The chemistry of saccharides, historical survey, and world production of sugar are presented. The sugar recovery from the two principal sources—sugar cane and sugar beets—are discussed. The chemistry and uses of nonsugar sweetening agents is also presented.
Chapter 7 describes paints, pigments, and industrial coatings. The major paint components, namely, pigments, binders, additives, and solvents are discussed in separate sections. These are followed by the principles of formulation, application techniques, durability, and testing of paints.
Chapter 8 is devoted to the industrially produced dyes with their classification, manufacture, properties, and main applications, as well as environmental and health aspects.
Chapter 9 presents an overview of modern fermentation processes and their application in food, pharmaceutical, and industrial chemical industries. The social and economic importance of fermentation processes is discussed.
The pharmaceutical industry is presented in Chapter 10 as one of the most important sectors of healthcare worldwide. The discovery, the development, and the production of drugs are covered in this chapter. The chapter also includes the correlation between the growth in the worldwide market for pharmaceuticals and the increase of the world population as a result of higher life expectancy and changes in lifestyle.
Chapter 11 presents an overview of the agrochemical industry. Beginning with the introduction and historical background, it leads to the modern trends in agriculture, chemical pest control, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and biological pest control agents. Social and economic aspects of pesticides use are also discussed.
Chapter 12 presents the chemistry of explosives. Chemical explosives and propellants are well-covered in this book because of their importance for peaceful uses. They are considered chemical compounds in pure form or mixtures that rapidly produce a large volume of hot gases when properly ignited. The destructive effects of explosives are much more spectacular than their peaceful uses. However, it appears that more explosives have been used by industries for peaceful purposes than in all the wars.
Chapter 13 covers the conversion of crude oil into desired products in an economically feasible and environmentally acceptable manner.
Descriptions are provided for (1) desalting and dewatering; (2) separation processes, of which distillation is the prime example; (3) conversion processes, of which coking and catalytic cracking are prime examples; and (4) finishing processes, of which hydrotreating to remove sulfur is a prime example. Descriptions of the various petroleum products (from fuel gas to asphalt and coke) are also given.
This chapter also includes a description of the petrochemical industry, and the production of the chemicals and compounds in a refinery that are destined for further processing, and used as raw material feedstocks for the fast-growing petrochemical industry.
Chapter 14 provides the basic principles of polymer science, and addresses the importance of this subject. This chapter aims to give a broad and unified description of the subject matter—describing the polymerization reactions, structures, properties, and applications of commercially important polymers, including those used as plastics, fibers, and elastomers. This chapter focuses on synthetic polymers because of the great commercial importance of these materials. The chemical reactions by which polymer molecules are synthesized are addressed along with the process conditions that can be used to carry them out. This chapter also discusses topics on degradation, stability, and environmental issues associated with the use of polymers.
This book is intended for university and college students who have studied organic chemistry, as well as for scientists and technicians who work in the organic chemical industry, and senior executives and specialists who wish to broaden their knowledge of the industrial organic processes as whole.
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