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Review Essays of Academic, Professional & Technical Books in the Humanities & Sciences


Photoelectron Spectroscopy 3rd edition by  Stefan Hufner (Springer Verlag) presents an up-to-date introduction to the field by comprehensively treating the electronic structures of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. Brief descriptions are given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron diffraction. Experimental aspects are considered throughout the book and the results are carefully interpreted in terms of the theory. A wealth of measured data is presented in tabulator form for easy use by experimentalists.

Molecules and solids can be characterized by two main types of qualities, namely their vibrational (elastic) properties and their electronic properties, which are of course intimately connected with each other. The study of vi­brations in molecules and solids is mostly performed by means of optical spectroscopy. This spectroscopy can also determine the electronic excitations of molecules and solids. In solids, compared to molecules, the phonon and electron excitations depend on an additional quantum number, which origi­nates from the periodicity of the crystal solid, namely the wave vector k. In order to perform wave-vector-dependent measurements one has to work with exciting particles which can transmit or absorb wave vectors of the same mag­nitude as those present in a solid. Therefore the optical technique is no longer sufficient to scan the phonon or electron distributions over the whole Brillouin zone (except with the difficult technique of two-photon spectroscopy).

With respect to the elastic properties of solids, the neutron diffraction technique has provided much information on the phonon dispersion curves of a great number of systems. Today we have a fair understanding of these phonon dispersion curves. With respect to the electron dispersion curves the situation was different up to about 1980, when the first electron dispersion curves were measured by photoemission spectroscopy. In the meantime photoemission spectroscopy has been developed further and is now the method of choice to study the electron dispersion curves of solids. Of course such dispersion curves can be, and also have been, measured for electronic surface states.

This volume deals with some, although by no means all, aspects of photoemission spectroscopy. This technique has been developed in the last 25 years and, with the extensive use of synchrotron radiation, can now be em­ployed for such diverse fields as the investigation of the chemical properties of specially treated surfaces of semiconductors or high polymers, for the study of the electronic structure of molecules absorbed on surfaces, and for the mea­surement of dispersion curves of bulk and surface electronic states. We have tried to write this volume at an elementary level such that the newcomer to the field can find some basic information that will then allow him to study recent reviews and the original literature.

After an introductory chapter, core levels, which are mostly used for chem­ical investigations, are treated in Chap 2. In Chaps. 3 and 4 the different final states that can arise in the photoemission process and the relation to the ini­tial ground state are discussed. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 deal with valence bands in molecules and in particular solids, where we try to present in some detail the methods by which electron dispersion relations can be obtained by this kind of spectroscopy. Finally, in the last four chapters we discuss specific fields of photoemission spectroscopy, namely the study of surface effects and then three particular modes of this technique, namely inverse photoemission spectroscopy, spin polarized photoemission spectroscopy and photoelectron diffraction.


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