Physics

Photoelectron Spectroscopy 3rd edition by
Stefan
Hufner (Springer Verlag) presents an up-to-date
introduction to the field by comprehensively treating the electronic structures
of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. Brief descriptions are
given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron
diffraction. Experimental aspects are considered throughout the book and the
results are carefully interpreted in terms of the theory. A wealth of measured
data is presented in tabulator form for easy use by experimentalists.

Molecules
and solids can be characterized by two main types of qualities, namely their
vibrational (elastic) properties and their electronic properties, which are of
course intimately connected with each other. The study of vibrations in
molecules and solids is mostly performed by means of optical spectroscopy. This
spectroscopy can also determine the electronic excitations of molecules and
solids. In solids, compared to molecules, the phonon and electron excitations
depend on an additional quantum number, which originates from the periodicity
of the crystal solid, namely the wave vector k. In order to perform
wave-vector-dependent measurements one has to work with exciting particles which
can transmit or absorb wave vectors of the same magnitude as those present in a
solid. Therefore the optical technique is no longer sufficient to scan the
phonon or electron distributions over the whole Brillouin zone (except with the
difficult technique of two-photon spectroscopy).

With
respect to the elastic properties of solids, the neutron diffraction technique
has provided much information on the phonon dispersion curves of a great number
of systems. Today we have a fair understanding of these phonon dispersion
curves. With respect to the electron dispersion curves the situation was
different up to about 1980, when the first electron dispersion curves were
measured by photoemission spectroscopy. In the meantime photoemission
spectroscopy has been developed further and is now the method of choice to study
the electron dispersion curves of solids. Of course such dispersion curves can
be, and also have been, measured for electronic surface states.

This volume
deals with some, although by no means all, aspects of photoemission
spectroscopy. This technique has been developed in the last 25 years and, with
the extensive use of synchrotron radiation, can now be employed for such
diverse fields as the investigation of the chemical properties of specially
treated surfaces of semiconductors or high polymers, for the study of the
electronic structure of molecules absorbed on surfaces, and for the measurement
of dispersion curves of bulk and surface electronic states. We have tried to
write this volume at an elementary level such that the newcomer to the field can
find some basic information that will then allow him to study recent reviews and
the original literature.

After an
introductory chapter, core levels, which are mostly used for chemical
investigations, are treated in Chap 2. In Chaps. 3 and 4 the different final
states that can arise in the photoemission process and the relation to the
initial ground state are discussed. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 deal with valence bands
in molecules and in particular solids, where we try to present in some detail
the methods by which electron dispersion relations can be obtained by this kind
of spectroscopy. Finally, in the last four chapters we discuss specific fields
of photoemission spectroscopy, namely the study of surface effects and then
three particular modes of this technique, namely inverse photoemission
spectroscopy, spin polarized photoemission spectroscopy and photoelectron
diffraction.

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