Strategic Intelligence: Windows into a Secret World: An Anthology edited
by Loch K. Johnson & James J. Wirtz (Roxbury
Publishing Company) provides the first comprehensive set of readings in the
field of intelligence studies. Loch K. Johnson and James J. Wirtz's anthology
spans a wide range of topics, from how the United States gathers and interprets
information collected around the world to comparisons of the American
intelligence system with the secret agencies of other nations.
The text addresses a wide range of material
including: (1) the meaning of strategic intelligence; (2) methods of
intelligence collection; (3) intelligence analysis; (4) the danger of
intelligence politicization; (5) relationships between intelligence officers
and the policymakers they serve; (6) covert action; (7) counterintelligence; (8)
accountability and civil liberties; and (9) intelligence as practiced in other
The text also contains valuable pedagogical
features including: (1) the thirty-six classic articles on intelligence by
leading experts; (2) nine thorough, chapter-length introductory essays by
editors Johnson, Regents Professor of Political Science at the University of
Georgia, editor of the journal Intelligence and National Security and Wirtz,
professor and chair of the Department of National Security Affairs, Naval
Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, which serve as a helpful "road map"
for the reader; (4) charts and figures on intelligence organization and
leadership; and (5) a select bibliography.
1. The Evolution of the U.S. Intelligence
Community – An Historical Overview by
Aspin-Brown Commission staff member Phyllis
Provost McNeil. This history of the U.S. intelligence community traces how
today's intelligence institutions, while shaped by the Cold War, are based on an
American tradition of supporting foreign and defense policy with clandestinely
2. The Quaintness of the U.S. Intelligence
Community: Its Origin, Theory, and Problems by Thomas F. Troy, a CIA veteran.
This overview of the evolution of the U.S. intelligence "community," offers some
insights into why it is so difficult to get various intelligence agencies to set
aside their own agendas and work toward improving the overall intelligence
picture available to policymakers.
3. The Use and Limits of U.S. Intelligence by Frank J. Cilluffo, who has chaired two committees on homeland defense, Ronald A. Marks, a former officer at the CIA and former intelligence counsel, and George C. Salmoiraghi, attorney and research associate with the Global Organized Crime Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. This discussion of the "new terrorism" explains why the intelligence community was not well prepared to meet the new threat, exemplified by the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Part II. Intelligence Collection
4. CIA and Its Discontents by Patrick R.
Riley, the nom de plume of a former case officer in the CIAs Directorate of
Operations. Riley explores whether the CIA can cope with all the intelligence
requirements placed on it since the end of the Cold War and calls for a more
discriminating list of targets for intelligence collection.
5. Re-examining Problems and Prospects in
U.S. Imagery Intelligence by John M. Diamond, who covers national security,
foreign policy, and intelligence issues for the Washington Bureau of the
Chicago Tribune. A perennial problem of intelligence collection is how to
acquire useful knowledge from the glut of information gathered by spy machines
and human agents. This article focuses on how to cope with the flood of
photographs (or images) that pour back to the United States from surveillance
6. The Satellite Gap by Jeffrey T.
Richelson, a senior fellow with the National Security Archive in Washington. A
researcher in the National Security Archives in Washington, D.C., Richelson
warns of an impending gap in U.S. surveillance satellite coverage, as one
generation of "birds" begins to wear out and fall to earth without another
generation ready to replace them in space.
7. The Time of Troubles: The U.S. National
Security Agency in the Twenty-First Century by Matthew M. Aid, managing director
in the Washington, D.C., office of Citigate Global Intelligence and Security.
America's largest intelligence organization, the National Security Agency, is
beset with a variety of bureaucratic problems according to this expert on
signals intelligence, who recommends improvements in management and outreach, as
well as technological remedies.
8. Analysis, War, and Decision: Why
Intelligence Failures Are Inevitable by Richard K. Betts, Leo A. Shifrin
Professor of War and Peace Studies in the Department of Political Science at
Columbia University. This history of diplomatic and military affairs is riddled
with instances when intelligence analysts failed to provide timely warning of
what was about to unfold. Betts presents a strong explanation of why
intelligence failures are envitable, as well as insights into the myriad
challenges that analysts must overcome to offer useful estimates of future
9. The Importance of Open Source
Intelligence to the Military by Robert D. Steele, president of Open Sources,
Inc., of Oakton, Virginia. Steele describes various types of information
available on the World Wide Web and explains how these sources can he exploited
by intelligence organizations to supplement the classified information they
traditionally rely upon as a basis for their estimates.
10. A Policymaker's Perspective on
Intelligence Analysis by Ambassador Robert D. Blackwill, who served as Special
Assistant to the President and Senior Director for European and Soviet Affairs
on the National Security Council staff from 1989-90, and Jack Davis, a former
CIA analyst, currently with the CIA's Sherman Kent Center. Policymakers must
focus on the pressing issues of the day, leaving little time to peruse finished
intelligence products. Blackwill offers the reader a glimpse into the lives of
policymakers and analysts as they interact.
11. Intelligence Estimates and the
Decision-Maker by Shlomo Gazit, a major general in the Israeli army. Gazit
highlights the importance of establishing what he describes as a "reciprocal
relationship" between analysts and policymakers and ways to bridge the gap that
exists between them.
12. CIA's Strategic Intelligence in Iraq by
Richard L. Russell, professor at the Near EastSouth Asia Center for Strategic
Studies, the National Defense University. This report on the CIAs performance
prior to the first Gulf War gives analysts high marks for accurate estimates of
Iraqi intentions and capabilities and the performance of U.S. forces in battle.
13. Early Warning Versus Concept: The Case
of the Yom Kippur War 1973 by Ephraim Kahana, a senior research associate in the
National Security Center at the University of Haifa and a faculty member in the
Political Science Department in the Western Galilee College. This study of
Israeli intelligence performance prior to the 1973 Yom Kippur war describes how
the analytic framework that dominated Israeli perceptions of events in the fall
of 1973 led both analysts and officials to misinterpret information about the
14. The Politicization of Intelligence
by Harry Howe Ransom, professor emeritus in political science at
Vanderbilt University. This overview of how politicization occurs within the
intelligence community suggests that it is inherent in the production of
intelligence, because information is crucial to "aiding and preserving political
15. Intelligence to Please? The Order of
Battle Controversy During the Vietnam War by James J. Wirtz. In this account of
a dispute that occurred within the U.S. intelligence community on the eve of the
1968 Tet offensive, Wirtz explores charges made by Samuel Adams, a CIA analyst,
that a conspiracy existed to prevent accurate information about enemy troop
strength from reaching senior members of the Johnson administration.
16. Inside Ivory Bunkers: CIA Analysts
Resist Managers’ ‘Pandering’ by H. Bradford Westerfield, recently retired as
Damon Wells Professor of International Studies and professor of political
science at Yale University. Westerfield describes the controversy surrounding
the 1991 nomination of Robert Gates as Director of Central Intelligence, who was
disliked by many analysts because they believed that he pressured them to
produce finished intelligence that supported White House policy preferences.
17. Intelligence and National Action by
Michael Herman, a leading British intelligence scholar. In this introduction to
the role played by intelligence in shaping diplomacy and military action, Herman
suggests that many things can influence the making of policy in peacetime and
war, not just information.
18. Tribal Tongues: Intelligence Consumers,
Intelligence Producers by Mark M. Lowenthal, assistant director of Central
Intelligence for analysis and production. Lowenthal suggests that the different
bureaucratic cultures of the policymaking and intelligence communities often
form a significant barrier to a close relationship between the consumers and
producers of intelligence.
19. Building Leverage in the Long War:
Ensuring Intelligence Community Creativity in the Fight Against Terrorism by
James W. Harris, senior analyst for Central Technology
In this call for intelligence reform in the
wake of the September 11 tragedy, Harris highlights the role elected officials
can play in shaping the intelligence community to meet the terrorist threat.
20. Interfering With Civil Society: CIA and
KGB Covert Political Action During the Cold War by Kevin A. O'Brien, a former
research associate with the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies and
currently a senior analyst for RAND Europe. The Cold War was in large part a
subterranean battle between the intelligence services of the two superpowers,
the United States and the Soviet Union, as carried out by their premier
intelligence services: the CIA and the KGB. O'Brien examines the political
dimension of covert actions undertaken by these two intelligence behemoths.
21. Covert Action: Swampland of American
Foreign Policy by Senator Frank Church, who led the 1975-76 Senate inquiry into
allegations of CIA abuses and served as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee. Church finds in the excesses of the CIA abroad the symptoms of an
illusion of American omnipotence that entrapped and enthralled the nation's
presidents throughout the Cold War.
22. Covert Action Can Be Just by James A.
Barry, who served as deputy director of the CIA's Center for the Study of
Intelligence. Exploring the use of covert action from the point of view of
just-war theory, Barry establishes benchmarks for judging the morality of this
controversial form of secret foreign policy. He eschews highly invasive
operations but advances an ethical justification for certain forms of covert
23. Cold War Spies: Why They Spied and How
They Got Caught by Stan A. Taylor, professor of political science at Brigham
Young University, and Daniel Snow, a published economic espionage author. Why
do some people commit treason against their own country? Taylor and Snow examine
this question and find that the answer is simple enough: for money.
24. Bane of Counterintelligence: Our
Penchant for Self-Deception by Tennent H. Bagley, who served as deputy chief of
the CIA operations. Bagley claims to have found the counterintelligence enemy
and the enemy is us: or at least the penchant of intelligence bureaucracies to
avoid the reality that they may have been penetrated by a hostile intelligence
25. OSS and the Venona Decrypts by Hayden B.
Peake, adjunct professor at the Defense Intelligence College in Washington.
Examining the Soviet "Venona" cables intercepted by U.S. Army intelligence
during the Cold War, former CIA officer Peake finds evidence of KGB and GRU
infiltration of the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner of the CIA.
26. Counterintelligence: The Broken Triad by
Frederick L. Wettering, retired CIA operations officer who managed clandestine
operations in Europe and Africa for more than three decades. An expert on
counterintelligence formerly with the CIA, Wettering sees U.S.
counterintelligence as a discipline in disarray and in need of radical reform.
27. Intelligence: Welcome to the American
Government by Gregory F. Treverton, who served as vice chairman of the National
Intelligence Council, and is currently with RAND. Treverton explores the merits
of viewing intelligence organizations as a regular part of America's government,
as subject to constitutional safeguards as any other department or agency.
28. Covert Action and Accountability:
Decision-Making for America's Secret Foreign Policy by Loch K. Johnson. Johnson
examines the specifics of congressional oversight and its implications for
29. Unleashing the Rogue Elephant: September
11 and Letting the CIA Be the CIA by
Frederick P. Hitz, inspector general of the CIA from 1990 to 1998, a lecturer in
public and international affairs at Princeton University. In hopes of
maintaining accountability without stifling the effectiveness of intelligence
officers, intelligence reformers and anti-reformers have debated the proper
level of supervision of the CIA. Hitz argues that the leash on the CIA is too
tight and suggests how to improve effectiveness without eroding civil liberties.
30. Ethics and Intelligence by E. Drexel
Godfrey, Jr., who served in the Intelligence Directorate of the CIA from 1957 to
1970, as well as the CIA's director of current intelligence. Godfrey maintains
that even in the dark domain of intelligence one must have certain limits of
restraint – at least in nations like the United States that have long displayed
a concern for morality in the making of foreign policy.
31. Another System of Oversight:
Intelligence and the Rise of Judicial Intervention by Frederic F. Manget, with
the Office of Legal Affairs at the CIA. The judicial branch of government is a
latecomer to the world of intelligence, but, as Manget notes, it is now very
much a part of that world as the courts provide yet another check on
32. Congressional Supervision of America's
Secret Agencies: The Experience and Legacy of the Church Committee by Loch K.
Johnson, former assistant to Senator Frank Church. Johnson reviews the
experiences of that investigation and gauges the contribution made by the Church
33. The Heritage and Future of the Russian
Intelligence Community by Robert W. Pringle, adjunct professor with the
Patterson School of Diplomacy at the University of Kentucky. In this postmortem
of the KGB, Pringle describes how it kept Soviet citizens in line and protected
the regime from both internal and external political threats. He also describes
the difficult task facing the Russian government as it creates new intelligence
organizations from the remnants of the KGB.
34. The Fall and Rise of France's Spymasters
by Percy Kemp, author of novels and articles about Islam, geopolitics, and
espionage. Following the upheaval that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet
Union and the first Gulf War, Hemp explains how the French government realized
that it needed a competent intelligence community to cope with emerging
35. Controlling Intelligence in New
Thomas C. Bruneau, who teaches in the Department of National Security Affairs at
the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, and is director of the
school's Center for Civil-Military Relations. Bruneau describes an issue that is
often overlooked in the literature on transitions to democracy: the reform of
intelligence organizations and their role in fledgling democracies.
36. Intelligence and Policy by Sir Percy
Cradock, who served as British Ambassador to China (1978-84) and Chairman of the
British Joint Intelligence Committee from 1985 to 1992. Cradock assesses the
performance of British intelligence since World War II.
Loch Johnson and James
Wirtz have produced a vitally important volume on the future of strategic
intelligence. At a time when U.S. and other intelligence services are adapting
quickly to the new threat environment, in part by returning to the basics of
collection, analysis, counterintelligence, and covert action, this volume offers
historical parallels and contemporary discussions about the challenges of doing
so. Drawing upon traditional and sometimes controversial experts, this book
covers the rich intelligence landscape and incorporates updated discussions on
ethics and accountability, politicization of intelligence, and even a section
on intelligence in other lands. One of the richest volumes on intelligence in
the past decade. – Kevin O’Connell, Director, Intelligency Policy Center,
The editors have done
a masterful job of selecting truly edifying pieces for this anthology. The
approach is logical and clear, and the editors' introductions to each section
are indispensable for making sense of the essays that follow. – Edward
Schatz, Southern Illinois University
Directed at students, the collection of articles in Strategic Intelligence covers the range of topics in intelligence. The readings are written by renowned experts, and each article is prefaced by a brief, framing introduction written by the editors.Taken together, they provide a deeper understanding of the field of intelligence than has yet been available – they are much needed and will be well received.
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