The Criminal Justice Student Writer's Manual, 5th Edition by William A. Johnson, Jr., Richard P. Rettig, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison (Pearson Prentice Hall)
The Criminal Justice Student Writer's Manual, Fifth Edition is designed to help students learn how to research and write in criminal justice and improve their writing skills. The five authors, all of whom are faculty at the University of Central Oklahoma except Richard Retting who is at Easter Oregon University, take a comprehensive approach. The book discusses the writing process, the mechanics of writing, the importance of research and how to cite sources. Now expanded to six parts, this edition includes a new chapter on writing probation and parole reports. Combining both guidelines and samples, it prepares students to write a variety of criminal justice papers, from condensed presentations to complex reports. This edition includes a new writing assignment and covers record keeping, violation reports and pre-sentence investigation reports.
Chapter of The Criminal Justice Student Writer's Manual, 5th edition, include:
This fifth edition has been fully updated to include:
The organization of this book is excellent. It is well written and free of superfluous material.The practical aspects are what make it an essential reference for my undergraduate and graduate criminal justice students.I would recommend it for use in police academies and police management in-service training. Mark McCoy, University of Central Oklahoma
The writing activities included in the book guide the students through the various forms of writing that are expected in the university critiques of articles, book reviews, formal position papers, etc. while they provide opportunities and incentives for students to get out and meet with professionals in the field. It creates the perfect environment for ... students to enhance and fine-tune their writing skills as they learn more about their future careers. Janet Hageman, San Jose State University
The Criminal Justice Student Writer's Manual offers an applied focus that emphasizes the importance of clear and accurate report writing for police officers, probation officers and parole officers. Students or professionals needing a resource on writing reaction papers, article critiques, police reports, agency case studies, and policy analysis papers will find The Criminal Justice Student Writer's Manual useful. The new chapter Writing Probation and Parole Reports makes this book unique.
The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court editied by Carsten Stahn, Goran Sluiter (Legal Aspects of International Organization: Brill Academic) The International Criminal Court is at a crossroads. In 1998, the Court was still a fiction. A decade later, it has become operational and faces its first challenges as a judicial institution. This volume examines this transition. It analyses the first jurisprudence and policies of the Court. It provides a systematic survey of the emerging law and practice in four main areas: the relationship of the Court to domestic jurisdictions, prosecutorial policy and practice, the treatment of the Court's applicable law and the shaping of its procedure. It revisits major themes, such as jurisdiction, complementarity, cooperation, prosecutorial discretion, modes of liability, pre-trial, trial and appeals procedure and the treatment of victims and witnesses, as well as their criticisms. It also explores some of challenges and potential avenues for future reform.
Except: from Foreword by Adriaan Bos:
I was asked to muse upon developments in the first five years since the entry into force of the Statute of Rome in the light of the negotiations preceding the adoption of the Statute at Rome.
It is a very striking experience to compare the overall situation of these negotiations with the actual state of international criminal law five years on. One may easily feel like Alice in Wonderland.
In the second part of the last decade of the 20th century, discussions on the establishment of an International Criminal Court (ICC) were strenuous efforts to cover new ground in the still largely unexplored territory of international criminal law. The enforcement of criminal justice was seen as one of the prerogatives of sovereignty. We had at our disposal, amongst others, the report of the International Law Commission, the jurisprudence of the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals and a long history of unsuccessful efforts to create an international criminal tribunal. It was first and foremost necessary to convince people of the desirability to create an international criminal court.
At present, the readers of this book can acquaint themselves with an International Criminal Court that is well organized and equipped, in full swing and already facing fundamental questions about its place in a globalized world where alternatives for the ICC are already created and where questions are asked whether the ICC fits properly into the judicial systems of all states and whether judicial procedures are an answer to serious crimes under all circumstances. We are balancing advantages and disadvantages of various forms of adjudication. Handbooks and literature devoted to the ICC and international criminal law are numerous. At universities, international criminal law has become a very popular subject.
At the time of the preliminary discussions of the ICC, international criminal law was still in its infancy. The first important development was the establishment of the ICTY in May 1993.' It was the first genuine international criminal tribunal ever established by an international organization. The mere existence of this tribunal was already important in helping to persuade opponents that an international criminal tribunal was no longer a fantasy. Both, the conformity of the establishment of the ICTY with the Charter and the purpose of the tribunal to contribute to the restoration and peace in the former Yugoslavia were disputed. Its establishment was soon followed by the creation of the International Tribunal for Rwanda in November 1994.
A proposal to amend the Yugoslav Tribunal's mandate to extend its jurisdiction to Rwanda was rejected. Some members of the Security Council feared that the expansion of an ad hoc jurisdiction would lead to a single tribunal that would gradually take on the characteristics of a permanent judicial institution. Nevertheless, the Council recognized that its coexistence with the ICTY "dictated a similar legal approach" as well as "certain organizational and institutional links so as to ensure a unity of legal approach, as well as economy and efficiency of resources".
The lessons learned from the establishment of these two tribunals and, subsequently, their experience and jurisprudence, have been of great help in shaping the contours of a permanent court. The establishment of these tribunals by the Security Council is no longer disputed.
2. Relationship between the Court and the United Nations
From the outset a close relationship between the Court and the United Nations was viewed as essential and a necessary link for the universality and standing of the Court. One of the reasons for the establishment of the Court was the growing understanding that the most serious crimes should not go unpunished because they threaten the peace, security and well-being of the world. This touches upon the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security, on the one hand, and the independence and impartiality of the Court, on the other hand, which is necessary to secure that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole will not remain unpunished. To find a solution respecting the mutual the tasks of both institutions appeared to be very complicated. This was true during the negotiations, but understandably it also turned out to be true in actual practice.
The complex character of this relationship manifested itself in different manners. Firstly, it was important to design the Statute in way which ensures that the international system of resolving disputes — and in particular the role of the Security Council — would not be undermined. Secondly, drafters had to bear in mind that the Statute should not confer any more authority on the Security Council than that already assigned to it by the Charter. Thirdly, they had to ensure that the relationship between the Court and the Council would not undermine the judicial independence and integrity of the Court or the sovereign equality of States.
These factors affected the triggering mechanism, the role of the Security Council to defer cases and the problems with regard to the crime of aggression under the Statute.
According to Article 13 of the Statute, the Court may exercise jurisdiction if a situation in which one or more of the crimes of the Statute appear to have been committed is referred to the Prosecutor by a State Party, by the Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter or by the Prosecutor proprio motu.
The prevailing assumption at that time was that cases would be submitted to the Court by the Security Council rather than by States or by the Prosecutor. This view was based on the understanding that the adoption of the Statute by States, and consequently its entry into force, would be a very time-consuming process. It was assumed that those States who decided to become Parties would not be those States where crimes are committed. Moreover, it did not seem very likely that States would be willling to submit situations to the Court which have occurred on the territory of other states. This view was supported by the limited use of inter-state complaints under human rights conventions. One of the reasons to establish the Court was to provide the Security Council with a permanent institution (as opposed to ad hoc bodies) in order to facilitate and economize the international criminal jurisdiction. At the time of our preliminary discussions, the Security Council was suffering of what was called a "tribunal fatigue': The costs and the energy necessary for the establishment of any new ad hoc tribunal were such that the establishment of any new ad hoc tribunal by the Council became very unlikely.
Cases submitted by the Security Council would, like in case of the ICTY and ICTR, have the binding effect of decisions based on Chapter VII of the Charter. They bind all members of the UN according to Article 25 of the Charter.
Referrals by the Security Council were therefore thought to be vital for the Court, at least in the beginning. But this assumption did not come true. On the contrary, the attitude of the United States versus the Court and the influence of this position on other members of the Security Council made it impossible for a long time to refer cases to the Court under Chapter VII. It was not until 31 March 2005 that the Council passed Resolution 1593 which referred the situation in Darfur to the ICC. Before the adoption of this resolution, some alternatives to the ICC were still suggested. The United States promoted the idea of an African hybrid court, a Sudanese tribunal based in Arusha where the seat of the ICTR is located. Nigeria, which was Chairman of the African Union, but not member of the Security Council advocated an African Panel for criminal justice and reconciliation in a letter to the EU.
In the case of the Sudan, a referral by the Security Council was the only way to bring the situation in Darfur before the Court, since the Sudan is not a Party to the Statute and not prepared to accept the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to this situation.
In the end, the resolution was adopted with ti votes in favour, none against and four abstentions by Algeria, Brazil, China and the United States. Brazil and Algeria abstained because they were not in a position to support operative paragraph 6 of the resolution which provides that third States that have not ratified the Statute have exclusive jurisdiction over their nationals. There were also complaints about operative paragraph 7 which states that none of the expenses shall be borne by the UN.
Another very controversial question has been whether the Security Council could block ongoing or pending proceedings before the Court. This question was discussed without any result in the preparatory phase and resolved only at the very end of the Conference in Rome as part of a more general package deal.
The practical importance of the relevant Article i6 Statute came to light on 30 June 2002 when the United States vetoed the renewal of the mandate of the UN peacekeeping mission in Bosnia Herzegowina (UNMIBH) in the Security Council. This was the first example of efforts of the United States in the Council to shield UN peacekeepers from non-ICC Party States from the jurisdiction of the ICC. The United States also started a policy of concluding bilateral agreements to limit the exposure of US-nationals. This was the beginning of a period of confrontations in and outside the Security Council between States Party to the Statute and the United States. It has raised questions of interpretation of the Statute which will hopefully be settled by the Court one day.
From the outset, a clear tendency existed to limit the subject-matter jurisdiction of the Court to the most serious crimes, which are of concern to the international community as a whole, i.e. genocide, crime of aggression, serious violations of the law and customs applicable in armed conflict, and crimes against humanity. Opinions were divided with regard the inclusion of the crime of aggression although that crime was included in the Charter of Nuremberg. There was no dispute that acts of aggression belong to the most serious crimes. There was, however, a strongly held view that aggression is an act of State rather than a crime of individuals. This made it contentious up until the end of the conference at Rome whether the crime should even be included in the Statute. The Statute contains the crime aggression as a confirmation that aggression belongs to the most serious crimes. However, the Court has no jurisdiction over this crime until aggression is defined and until it is set out under what conditions the Court shall exercise its jurisdiction. Consequently, a very careful balance needs to be struck between the competences of the Security Council in determining the existence of an act of aggression and the exercise of jurisdiction by the ICC with regard to this crime, in order to make it acceptable for all interested parties, including the permanent members of the Security Council.
This again is a very delicate question which touches upon the relationship between the two institutions. Hopefully, the Assembly of the Parties will succeed at the Review Conference to fulfil this difficult task. According to the view of one of the contributors to this volume (Roger Clark), this is considered "not beyond human ingenuity's I have elaborated on this subject because it demonstrates clearly that it remains difficult to predict how the relationship between the Security Council and the Court will develop. The crime of aggression still needs to be defined. The short experience with the deferrals has been discouraging. Considerable effort has been expended on the Darfur referral. Its resolution contains paragraphs that are at odds with the Statute. Nevertheless, its adoption is seen as a positive sign for the future cooperation between the Court and the Council.
One may agree with the view that the developing relationship with the Security Council will prove to be one of the most important issues for the determination of the future of the ICC. One may hope that the developments in the coming five years will be more positive than events during the first five years.
Certain problems were already anticipated at an early phase of our negotiations. The rules on complementarity are an example. This principle of complementarity has been of fundamental importance for the successful conclusion of the negotiations. It managed to convince states that they would remain master over their own judicial proceedings, without allowing perpetrators of serious crimes to go unpunished. Whenever a State properly carries out its obligations to investigate and prosecute, the case will be inadmissible before the Court, even if that State decides on solid grounds not to prosecute. Complementarity can be seen as a bridge between international and national jurisdiction. The basic framework of this principle, as laid down in Articles 17-20 of the Statute, was already elaborated in the negotiations before Rome. Only minor changes were made in Rome.
With the referrals of Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic, a new phenomenon is introduced, namely that of auto-referrals. In the phase of the preliminary negotiations, a suggestion was made that a State might voluntarily decide to relinquish its jurisdiction in favour of the Court. But this suggestion was not followed up in later phases. It has always been assumed that jurisdiction would either be exercised by the Court or by the State on whose territory or by whose nationals crimes are committed. The text of Article 14 of the Statute does not rule out the possibility of a referral by States on whose territory or by whose nationals crimes have been committed. It allows "a State Party" to refer a situation to the Court. In the negotiations this option was not well thought through. It is now up for the Court to decide how to deal with this new phenomenon. It raises fundamental questions. Does it involve the Court too far in internal controversies within a State at the risk of endangering the independence of the Court? To what extent is it in conformity with the obligations of the States Parties to investigate and prosecute?
I have tried to outline how immensely the scene of international criminal law has changed over the past two decades. The attitude of the United States vis-a-vis the Court has caused problems in the past five years. Their acquiescence to the Darfur referral appears to be a good omen for the coming years. Other American officials have also indicated that the United States now appears to accept that the ICC has a role to play in the overall system of international justice.' This may help to convince non-Parties to ratify the Statute. The Court is born out of the UN system and it has clearly a universal vocation. It is now for the Court as judicial body to show how it can meaningful contribute to the peace, security and well-being of the international community.
The collection of articles contained in this volume proves how prominent the Court has already become in the international legal community. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the emerging practice after five years. The President of the ICC, the Prosecutor, two eminent judges and a former judge provide their learned and sometimes critical views. Eminent experts take a close look at all legal aspects raised by the actions of the Court. Comparisons are drawn to the practice of other international criminal courts. Various contributions scrutinze the actions of the Pretrial, Trial and the Appeals Chamber of the Court. Special attention is given to the role of victims, a novelty in the Statute. In short, reading of this book will inform any reader how far the Court has already advanced in its activity and what kind of problems it is likely to face in the coming years.
Sentencing: A Reference Handbook by Dean Champion, Mildred Vasan (Contemporary World Issues: ABC-CLIO) examines the sentencing process in detail. The initial chapter on history and development defines sentencing and its goals. Sentencing is the application of one or more punishments / sanctions following a criminal conviction. These punishments include fines and / or incarceration, or placement under the supervision of probation officers. The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 restated a number of sentencing objectives that have guided sentencing judges in their leniency or harshness toward convicted defendants. Some of those objectives have been made explicit by various states and local jurisdictions in past years, while others have been implicitly incorporated into prevailing sentencing guidelines. Some of the more important functions and goals of sentencing are (1) to promote respect for the law, (2) to reflect the seriousness of the offense, (3) to provide just punishment for the offense, (4) to deter the defendant from future criminal conduct, (5) to protect the public from the convicted offender, and (6) to provide the convicted defendant with education and / or vocational training or other rehabilitative relief. The purposes of sentencing include punishment or retribution, deterrence, custodial monitoring or incapacitation, and rehabilitation. Four different types of sentencing schemes are described: indeterminate, determinate, presumptive or guidelines-based, and mandatory. The differences between state and federal sentencing policies is examined. A history of sentencing in the United States is presented as well.
Accused persons have established, constitutional rights under the law, which are examined here. The sentencing process often involves a formal sentencing hearing in which both convicted offenders and victims have the opportunity to influence the sentencing decision. This process is examined in detail. Both victim and offender input are crucial during sentencing hearings. Convicted offenders may choose to accept responsibility for their actions and thus attempt to minimize their sentences, while victims can explain to the court how their lives have been harmed by the offender's actions, in an effort to enhance punishment. Judges must weigh these factors and give them proper acknowledgment. Consideration is given to both aggravating and mitigating circumstances to enhance or minimize the punishments contemplated by judges when imposing sentences. Once sentences have been imposed, however, they may be appealed. Thus the appeals process is examined. Both legal and extralegal factors emerge as key considerations in the sentencing process. Some critics of the U.S. sentencing system say that it is racist and deprives certain persons of their full entitlement to legal rights according to socioeconomic factors. These factors will be discussed.
A discussion of some of the problems, controversies, and solutions to sentencing problems follows the historical survey. Judicial decision-making about the types of sentences to be imposed is not always clear-cut. Every trial is different from the next, and sentencing offenders is not as easy as it appears at first glance. Sentencing is a major concern for those advocating justice reforms. The federal government and most states have passed new sentencing legislation in response to criticisms that present sentencing practices are discriminatory according to gender, race or ethnic background, and socioeconomic status. Over the years citizen discontent with existing sentencing laws and particular sensationalized crimes have caused state and federal legislators to change sentencing laws. It is believed that such changes will correct existing legal defects associated with sentencing practices and create a sentencing pattern based more upon just deserts. Thus proportionality of sentencing is a desired long-term objective of most sentencing schemes. Those who commit more serious offenses should receive harsher sentences.
But what is ideally visualized as the right sentencing scenario seldom materializes. There are continuing and pervasive problems with all sentencing schemes in virtually all jurisdictions. Many persons are wrongfully convicted, and many are overpenalized. Some guilty persons escape punishment. Although the exact figures of how many such persons pass through the legal system annually are unknown, there are sufficient documented occurrences of these cases that serious questions con tinue to be raised about our existing sentencing laws and the adequacy of our legal system.
Several key issues relating to sentencing policies at the state and federal levels will be examined. Should convicted persons receive probation or incarceration? Jail and prison overcrowding exists at unprecedented levels, and overcrowding problems are increasing rather than diminishing. It is strategically impossible to lock up everyone, and thus, some attention needs to be given to which offenders deserve incarceration the most. That is where selective incapacitation has been proposed. But the matter of false positives and false negatives arises. Some persons are predicted to be dangerous but in fact will not be dangerous if released to probation. Other offenders are predicted not to be dangerous, but once they are released on probation they commit heinous crimes or harm others. Clearly our prediction schemes are imperfect and are in need of revision and improvement.
The public blames judges and parole boards for abuses of discretion and faulty decision-making. But there are pressures upon these key figures and boards to minimize or abbreviate incarceration. Furthermore, offenders believe that they are entitled to some type of rehabilitation so that they may eventually be able to reintegrate themselves back into society. To what extent are jails and prisons providing effective rehabilitation and treatment for such persons? Only about 20 percent of all inmates in U.S. prisons and jails have vocational and educational opportunities. Contrary to popular belief, most prisoners do not perform prison labor. Thus many of these offenders are simply warehoused without any meaningful rehabilitation or improvement occurring. Recidivism and program effectiveness are closely intertwined, therefore, and various issues related to recidivism rates will be considered.
Next a world-wide comparative perspective is introduced to examine the sentencing systems in fifteen other countries. This international perspective exposes many of the similarities and differences among the many industrialized countries of the world. While this chapter is not comprehensive, it is nevertheless representative of the sentencing schemes of most other world countries. It provides readers with a clearer idea of how the U.S. sentencing system and justice process work and how it compares with justice schemes used by other countries in punishing their criminals.
A neat chronology of key events in U.S. sentencing history is provided. It is worth noting that many sentencing schemes have been appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, where their constitutionality has been questioned. Each era of a U.S. Supreme Court is frequently cited by a reference to the presiding chief justice, such as the "Warren Court" or the "Burger Court." Particular landmark cases in sentencing issues are often defined by the justices who decide these cases, either for or against defendants.
Biographical sketches of key persons who have influenced the sentencing process in the United States is given. Some of these key figures are from Ireland and England, inasmuch as their innovations were presented at an international conference in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1870 at the first meeting of the National Prison Association, which later became the widely known American Correctional Association; in 2006 it had a membership in excess of 33,000. These key figures, who have shaped our sentencing schemes over time, also include various chief justices of the U.S. Supreme Court, where final decisions about the constitutionality of various sentencing practices have been determined.
An examination of facts and data pertaining to sentenced persons in the United States rounds out this survey of sentencing practices. Profiles of those presently sentenced in U.S. prisons and jails are described. What are their ethnic / racial and gender characteristics? What types of crimes have they committed? Offenders on probation and parole are also profiled. These profiles give readers a good idea of the types of persons who are among us in our neighborhoods and cities. In addition, average sentence lengths give us an appreciation for how much justice is employed in the punishment process. State and federal sentencing patterns are compared, and sentencing trends are examined and discussed. This chapter also identifies and briefs approximately thirty leading U.S. Supreme Court cases pertaining to sentencing, including the constitutionality of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, sex offender sentencing laws, reconvictions and resentencing, acceptance of responsibility during sentencing hearings, and the presentation of aggravating and mitigating circumstances that weigh heavily in sentencing decisions by judges. These cases are presented chronologically and contain precise citations so that students may locate complete cases in legal volumes for further reading and study.
The book concludes with is an annotated directory of organizations, associations, and agencies that relate to the sentencing process. Every attempt has been made to include relevant organizations that have a vested interest in sentencing, both from the prosecution side and the defense perspective. All indigent defendants are entitled to repesentation by competent counsel. Therefore organizations such as public defender agencies are presented. Based on our previous examination of world sentencing schemes, the United Nations has become involved in U.S. sentencing issues repeatedly, especially in issues relating to the death penalty and its administration. Amnesty International and the American Civil Liberties Union have also been involved in a concerted effort to ensure and protect the rights of both accused and convicted persons
Lastly lists both print and nonprint resources pertaining to sentencing. These include bibliographical materials dealing with various sentencing issues and problems, annotated print resources pertaining to factual sentencing information, and non-print resources such as films and documentaries that would enhance our understanding of the sentencing process.
The study has appended a glossary of key terms used in
sentencing offenders. Terms used in the sentencing process are
clearly defined. The glossary is reasonably comprehensive, although
more extensive compendiums of terms exist and are cited for further
Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods by Peter B. Kraska, W. Lawrence Neuman (Allyn & Bacon) Learning research methods is fundamental to a quality education. Most criminal justice and criminology programs, at the graduate and undergraduate levels, require students to take at least one methods course. The reasons are simple but profound. First, producing knowledge lies at the heart of the academic enterprise. Researchers produce knowledge about crime and criminal justice through various methods, and then disseminate that knowledge to students, each other, and the public at large. This book examines the deep significance of what it means to produce knowledge, and how the knowledge we accept as legitimate helps to form our perceptions of reality. The creation of credible knowledge through rigorous scientific methods is a powerful pursuit.
Second, the practice of research, and the use of research-based knowledge, has become a mainstream part of criminal justice and social life. In the new millennium, we can no longer think of research as an academic pursuit just for other academics. Today's crime and justice students must learn to be critical consumers, if not competent producers, of research-based knowledge. This new textbook for our field illuminates the significance and relevance of research—presenting it as not just something to study, but as essential for sharpening critical thinking skills for academics and practitioners and cultivating competent decision-making.
Given our combined 49 years of experience teaching research methods, we realize that it is a challenging course for both students and instructors. As a result, we have crafted a unique learning tool designed to maximize the chances for a semester of successful learning. Our efforts have centered on truly engaging students to learn an essential yet difficult subject. Engagement occurs through:
Frequent reference to grounded research examples
An accessible style without sacrificing rigor
Cutting-edge coverage of a wide array of research developments in our field A pedagogically friendly presentation of the material
A consistent demonstration of how research methods is directly relevant to our discipline, the practicing criminal justice system, crime, and crime control, and society as a whole
A commitment to putting the knowledge gained into practice through thought-provoking highlights and a comprehensive collection of attention-grabbing research exercises
We believe we have created a book that both professors and students will appreciate. Professors will like its comprehensive, balanced, and engaging coverage of the material; students will appreciate its straight-forward style and its portrayal of research methods as interesting and relevant.
Listed below are the major features of this text designed to keep students engaged in the semester-long process of learning about crime and criminal justice research methods.
Relevant and accessible without sacrificing academic rigor. Students need to understand from the beginning why studying research methods is relevant to the practicing field, them as individuals, and crime and justice studies. Chapter 1 places a high level of emphasis on this theme, and it is reinforced throughout the book. Relevance must be demonstrated through easy to relate to examples such as the Matrix movies, real-life student research examples, major events such as global warming, Hurricane Katrina, Homeland Security, the War on Terrorism, domestic violence, and criminal justice practitioner morale and burnout. Every research example and exercise has been chosen to demonstrate to students how fascinating and worthwhile research can be in our field. This mode of presentation communicates a tone of relevance, gritty reality, connectedness, and a strong sense that research actually matters.
Beyond the nuts and bolts. Students will more effectively commit to a class and a book if they have a clear sense of the big picture—where the subject matter ties in. This requires students to think about research methods beyond the typical how-to approach, and confront issues about
the why of knowledge (an introduction to epistemological issues)
the role of knowledge and research in our discipline and the practicing world the thinking behind science (its spirit, ethos, assumptions, and methods)
the controversies and ethical issues facing the field of research methods
As we emphasize throughout the book, the goal here is to develop students' critical thinking skills as both users and consumers of research.
Highly pedagogically friendly. Learning from textbooks can be difficult.
This book employs numerous techniques to make learning the material easier. Rather than scattering hundreds of disconnected studies throughout the book as illustrations, this book integrates some of the same main examples throughout the various chapters to maintain continuity of thought. Similarly, it presents some of the authors' research projects as illustrations and then revisits these throughout the book. We also reference our own students' research projects to give the reader a sense that research is not something beyond their reach.
The ideas, concepts, and issues presented in each chapter are integrated into subsequent chapters as the book moves forward. We refer to these repeatedly throughout the rest of the text. The objective is a well-integrated book.
We use numerous visual aids, which include drawings and photographs. The drawings are designed to represent complicated ideas in simple, concrete form. The photographs help ground the ideas and maintain reader interest. The Highlights are substantive and well integrated into the subject matter. They are not merely interesting peripheral reading. Key terms are boldfaced and their definitions reviewed in the margins. We routinely use summary tables that distill in visual form the more lengthy and involved sections of the book. Each of the four major sections of the book is explained in depth for the reader and provides clear direction; they help tie together the fifteen chapters.
I Learning beyond research methods. We strongly believe that a research methods course harbors high potential not only to teach the students about research methods but also, in the process, to teach them about criminal justice and criminology and crime, crime control and justice. This book demonstrates
to students the wide range of research interests and approaches our field pursues. We include examples from international studies; what works in policing (and what doesn't); juvenile and adult correction research; and a wide array of evaluation research, forensics, feminist studies, juvenile justice, crime theory, and criminal justice theory. The examples we choose are designed to showcase our fascinating field of study as well as teach students about research methods. A balanced approach to a diverse and highly dynamic field of study. Our relatively young field of study is evolving rapidly. As the field of criminal justice and criminology has grown and matured, there has been rising interest in, and acceptance of, qualitative research, mixed methods research, and philosophy of science issues. Existing methods textbooks have not kept pace with these developments: qualitative research is covered superficially, quantitative and qualitative methods are viewed as mutually exclusive, and philosophy of science issues is hardly addressed. Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods adopts a more inclusive and up-to-date approach, capturing and embracing our field's expanding methodological diversity. (However, this inclusive stance should not be interpreted as a lack of commitment to our traditional methods. Our coverage of traditional quantitative methods is as comprehensive, if not more so, than the other texts in our field.)
This book is structured in four sections. The first establishes a philosophical and theoretical foundation; the second examines considerations in research preparation; the third details our major quantitative methods; and the fourth examines qualitative and mixed methods research, including a chapter on presenting research.
The first three chapters answer some fundamental questions about the nature of knowledge, its construction, and its use within our field of study. The discussion revolves around three central questions: (1) What do we study and why? (2) How do we know what we know? (3) What are the best ways to generate valid, reliable, and legitimate knowledge? These first chapters construct a foundational roadmap—one that includes information and ideas about our discipline (what we study and who studies it), theory (what is theory and why it is essential to research), and philosophy (the underlying assumptions of knowledge production in crime and justice research and its various approaches). The aim is to help the student develop a higher level of research competence, a greater level of critical awareness, and to establish the foundational thinking that will assist in the competent production or consumption of crime and criminal justice research. In short, we establish a solid theoretical and philosophical foundation, crucial for developing the necessary skills to critically assess research studies and claims to legitimate knowledge.
If the purpose of the first section is to provide a macroperspective of the multitreed forest of crime and justice research methods, the second section begins the process of examining the trees themselves. Chapters 4 through 7 are preparatory for examining specific quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. Each comprises numerous issues and details to consider during the planning and initial implementation of a research project, including
Developing a worthwhile topic Conducting library research about a topic
Focusing our topic into a workable research project
Thinking through the ethical pitfalls and implications Constructing an overall design for the research
Planning how the variables and concepts used will be measured Determining what sampling techniques will be used
The third section of the book (Chapters 8 through 11) focus on the mainstays of quantitative research in our field: experiments, quasi experiments, surveys, interviews, nonreactive methods, and secondary analysis. All four chapters integrate in a substantive way the various ideas and examples employed in the first seven chapters of the book. The chapters also firmly ground the various quantitative techniques discussed within our field of study. They provide continual reinforcement for the student to keep in mind the relevance of research not only for academics but for the practicing community as well. The final chapter in this section provides an introduction to the world of statistics. It can be used as either a stand-alone chapter or in conjunction with a statistical software component.
Chapters 12 through 14 in the fourth section are unique to our field. They provide a comprehensive coverage of qualitative research techniques. Chapter 12 is dedicated to ethnographic field research techniques. It reviews an array of captivating examples of ethnographic work taken directly from leading academics in our discipline. Chapter 13 examines four commonly used methods that are not discussed in other criminal justice/criminology research texts. These include major sections on
Historical and historical-comparative research
Qualitative document analysis, including visual research methods
Academic legal research Mixed methods research
Two of these methods should be clarified. The first is mixed methods research. Social science research in general, and our field in particular, is rapidly moving toward mainstreaming mixed methods approaches (combining qualitative and quantitative techniques). The mixed methods section examines the why and how of this promising development. The second is academic legal research. Although it admittedly doesn't fit the traditional definition of social science research, it is a critical and unique research method employed often in our particular field, which studies the law as one of its core concerns.
This book is comprehensive in its coverage. However, the structure and style of presentation applies well to many different types of methods courses. The survey research conducted for this book found that criminal justice and criminology instructors have a variety of goals and areas of emphasis for their particular courses. A few examples of how this book might accommodate this diversity include the following:
Some instructors prefer to emphasize quantitative methods and spend less time on qualitative. The quantitative chapters are certainly thorough enough to accommodate this approach; if an instructor requires only the ethnographic field research chapter, students will still be exposed to a much more in-depth coverage of qualitative methods than other texts provide. The quantitative analysis chapter could easily be used along with an SPSS learning module as a way to further pursue a quantitative focus.
There are also instructors who want their students to gain an in-depth education about both quantitative and qualitative methods. This book's balanced coverage is ideal.
There are a few instructors who want their students to understand the basics of quantitative research, but they tend to focus more on qualitative methods. Before the publication of this text, their only option was to use a supplemental book on qualitative methods.
This text was designed and written with the typical criminal justice or criminology undergraduate student in mind. Our aim is to present the material in such an accessible and straightforward way that a wide variety of students will be able to use it. It may be necessary for those students who are less well prepared, however, to skip some of the material or to exclude a chapter or two (possible options for exclusion might be the Philosphy of Science section in Chapter 3 or Chapters 11, 13, and 14). For most undergraduate programs, however, the book's breadth and depth are well-suited.
Finally, this text also applies well at the master's degree level, particularly if the professor supplements the book with other materials such as journal articles. Another way to increase the rigor of a graduate course would be to require students to complete most, if not all, of the Practicing Research exercises. Over the last twenty years Kraska has listened to many professors complain about the lack of an adequate methods textbook for graduate students in criminal justice/criminology. This text would work well at the graduate level.
Criminal Justice (2nd Edition) by James A. Fagin (MyCrimeLab Series: Allyn & Bacon) The challenge of a criminal justice book is to capture the dynamic and ubiquitous nature of the criminal justice system and the academic scholarship on which the academic discipline is based but at the same time connect the text to the real world. The criminal justice system is complex and it can be difficult for students to understand, so it is important that students find the text informative, readable, accurate, and interesting. Both CJ majors and non majors will find each chapter interesting and readable. You will find that Criminal Justice integrates well with the liberal arts curriculum as it emphasizes how criminal justice is built on the foundation of other disciplines and the interrelationship of CJ to other academic disciplines. You will find it easy to construct lesson plans and lectures that build on the students' global education so that they will see how their lives are touched by the criminal justice system.
Criminal Justice emphasizes that the CJ system is part of a complex, interrelated, and dynamic governance and social system based on checks and balances. I have emphasized how the CJ system is connected to other academic, political, and social systems and values. Also, I think that this approach encourages students to appreciate the academic rigor underlying the CJ system.
The goals of this book are to explain the criminal justice system to undergraduate students, to provide sufficient background knowledge for students to understand important concepts, and to prepare students for success in other criminal justice classes as well as for careers in public service. It introduces the history, influences, and related fields of knowledge that are connected to the criminal justice system. It strives to present a comprehensive, balanced, concrete description of how the criminal justice system works, why it works that way, why it is different from past systems and from systems of other cultures, and how it is influenced by scientific knowledge, social norms, and prevailing beliefs about justice. Thus, the book enlightens students on the reasons behind the development and evolution of contemporary situations in the criminal justice system. For instance, it explains why the United States has a decentralized law enforcement model, why local police have difficulty responding to terrorism and international drug trafficking, why jurisdictional conflicts exist among criminal justice agencies, and why prisons are overcrowded.
The text stimulates the student to read about criminal justice, it encourages the student to do further research, and it emphasizes that the student should understand that one of the most important and powerful relationships between citizens and government is defined by the criminal justice system.
Criminal Justice is a comprehensive introductory textbook. The text strives to cover the important aspects of the CJ system but no text can be encyclopedic—nor should
it be in an introductory class. It emphasizes the criminal justice system as part of a complex, interrelated, and dynamic social system based on checks and balances. Also, I recognize that many topics—such as criminology, criminal law, juvenile justice, and corrections—are whole separate courses in the criminal justice curriculum.
Also, I believe that both the text and the instructor are essential to effective learning. Thus, I assume that you will adapt the chapter contents to your teaching style, your geographical area, and the students in your class. You will skip some material and you may supplement other topics to arrive at the balance that is appropriate for your class, city, and state.
Both the first edition and the 2005 Update reflected the tremendous change that the criminal justice system has experienced since September 11, 2001. The second edition looks back at how those changes have affected the criminal justice system and has sorted out how new values and changes have changed the CJ system. In this manner, the text emphasizes the dynamic, value-driven nature of the criminal justice system.
The second edition contains four new chapters:
Victimology: The Other Side of Crime (Chapter 4)
Homeland Security: The New Era of Federalism in Criminal Justice (Chapter 9)
The Juvenile Justice System: The Youthful Offender (Chapter 16)
Crime in America (Chapter 17)
These chapters cover exciting topics that are assuming greater and greater importance in society. They emphasize that CJ is becoming much more inclusive of important social as well as criminal topics and values. The text was carefully edited to allow for the inclusion of these chapters while keeping the overall length of the text from becoming too long.
Criminal Justice is organized into seventeen chapters in six parts. Part One has two foundational chapters on the criminal justice system and the criminal justice process. Part Two has two survey chapters covering criminological theories and victimization theories and one chapter on criminal law. Part Three has four chapters on the police, including a new chapter that highlights the affect of homeland security and the War on Terrorism on the criminal justice system. This is followed by three chapters on the court system in Part Four, and three chapters on the correctional system in Part Five. The last two chapters in Part Six are new chapters on Juvenile Justice and Crime in America. Crime in America uses drug abuse, computer crime and identity theft, and child sex offending to examine in detail the complex and multiple-agency cooperation necessary to fight crime.
Criminal Justice has numerous student-friendly features to enhance the students' interest and retention. Each chapter provides students with learning objectives, a summary of the chapter, a systematic check of reading comprehension, vocabulary review, and end-of-chapter questions that provoke thought and encourage students to examine aspects of the chapter in greater detail. Students will be able to maximize their performance in your course.
Each chapter opens with a Chapter Outline, a list of Learning Objectives, and a Chapter-Opening Vignette that provides a relevant real-life example from today's headlines of an event in the criminal justice system. Some of the illustrated chapter-opening stories are humorous, others are serious, but all are real. For example, it is true that a Texas legislator wanted to ban "suggestive
high school cheerleading" because he thought it led to sexual immorality, and a longtime priest justified stealing $100 a week from the collection plate because he considered it his retirement plan. Although there is a certain humor to these situations, there are underlying serious questions concerning the role and purpose of the criminal justice system.
Chapters systematically give students the opportunity to check their retention and comprehension of the material. At the beginning of each main section of text, The Main Idea briefly summarizes what is important to remember about that section. Then, at the end of each main section of text, CheckYour Understanding asks students to answer review questions about the section of text they just read. Key terms are bolded in the chapter narrative and defined in the margins in the page-by-page Glossary. Also in the margins are web links that contain useful, stable URLs that students can access for more practical or in-depth information about the criminal justice system. These web-sites put students in contact with local, state, federal, and international criminal justice agencies and reference materials.
Chapters close with a Chapter Summary, Vocabulary Review, Do You Remember? (a list of key names and events with page references), and Think about This questions. Think about This presents provocative questions designed to stimulate critical thinking about the application of chapter concepts to real-world situations. These questions do not have "right" and "wrong" answers but are designed to generate discussion and debate about the practical outcomes or implications of important concepts in the chapter. Chapters also close with a comprehensive Research Navigator activity in which students answer specific questions based on a chapter-related journal article. Students access and read these articles online through the online Research Navigator website. The Supplements section on page xxiii has more information about this valuable student research tool.
Boxed features in each chapter provide an examination of an aspect of the criminal justice system. The five types of features are Criminal Justice in the Media, Criminal Justice in the World, Ethics in the System, Diversity in the System, and Careers in the System. Each box closes with critical thinking questions for students to answer and link to chapter content. Criminal Justice in the Media examines the influence of the mass media and entertainment media on crime, public responses to crime, and people's assumptions about the criminal justice system. Criminal Justice in the World gives interesting information about the criminal justice systems of other countries, providing a basis for comparison and contrast with the American criminal justice system. Ethics in the System raises important questions about ethical behavior in all aspects of the criminal justice system. Diversity in the System highlights how the criminal justice system both reflects and responds to American diversity in race, ethnicity, age, gender, and social class, and how sometimes the criminal justice system itself becomes a source of injustice. These features also illustrate how the criminal justice system changes in response to changing values and laws and how the criminal justice system is used as a tool to bring about equality. Careers in the System gives students an inside look at what people who work in the system do and how they feel about it, as well as practical information and advice about salaries, academic requirements, and career strategies. For example, students need to know that the FBI does not hire people without experience, that deputy sheriffs may be required to work in the jail before they can get other assignments, and that jails and prisons need many other professionals besides correctional officers.
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