The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice edited by Kirk J. Schneider, James F. T. Bugental and J. Fraser Pierson (Sage) Humanism has a long and important history. The various emergences and subsidings of the discipline often follow social patterns not dealt with directly in this volume. American psychology has often been unwell to integrate philosophical concerns with therapeutic goals that go beyond academic research paradigms.
Yet, humanism (and humanistic psychology in particular) is a great deal more complex than the conceptions of its detractors or even those of its transformers. As the contributors to this volume make clear, contemporary humanistic psychology has come a long way since the days of fuzzy-minded or idiosyncratic scholarship (to whatever extent those actually predominated). Now, it is a rich tapestry of diverse and reflective voices that often complement, inform, and even inspire their ostensible detractors. In this volume, for example, we see meditations on the humanistic contributions to cutting-edge research, discussions of the humanistic origins of postmodern narrative psychology, examinations of the complementarity between personal myths and contemporary physics, reflections on the place of humanistic psychology in cross-cultural studies, and considerations of the role of personalism in an era of "managed" mental health. We also see leading-edge formulations of humanistic ecology, peace, and gender studies along with many other traditional areas of inquiry.
The upshot of this elaboration is that contemporary humanistic psychology is an integrative psychology that addresses the most pressing issues of our times. What, then, does contemporary humanistic psychology offer that is distinctive, unique, or vital? In our view, contemporary humanistic psychology brings that which the earlier generation of humanistic psychologists also prized-the heart or personal dimension to which we earlier alluded. Unlike the previous generation, however, contemporary humanistic psychology has the benefit of incorporating a wealth of recent insight into its personalism, for example, a recognition of its significance for politics and culture as well as for individuals (see the chapters by O'Hara [Chapter 36] and Warmoth [Chapter 48] in this volume) and an increased openness to its spiritual implications (see the chapters by Elkins [Chapter 16], Krippner [Chapter 22], Pilisuk & Joy [Chapter 9], and Walsh [Chapter 45] in this volume). The poignancy of the tragic also is highlighted (see the chapters by Stern [Chapter 31], Heery [Chapter 34], Greening [Chapter 12], and Mendelowitz [Chapter 13] in this volume) along with traditional humanistic accents on hope. In short, the new personalism embraces experiences that matter-that have "resonance validity" (see the chapter on multiple-case depth research by Schneider [Chapter 23] in this volume), regardless of whether or not those experiences pertain to individuals or groups, persons or divinities.
Yet, it is precisely such experiences, and such openness, that psychology lacks today-on all of its major fronts. Consequently, it has withered, fragmented, and compartmentalized (Bevan & Kessel, 1994; Wertz, 1995). On the other hand, consider what the personal dimension (the intimate and resonant) could bring to psychology's various components-to the statistical mind-set of methodology, the standardization mentality of psychotherapy, the group consciousness of multiculturalism, the nihilism of poststructuralism, and the esoterics of transpersonalism.
Sixteen years ago, Carl Rogers issued a challenge: Can humanistic psychology, with all of its applied and philosophical richness, become a force in academia and science (Rogers, 1985)? We believe that it can, and we believe that this volume makes its appearance at a critical historical juncture. To the extent that psychology is fractured, rivalrous, and rife with tension, it is also abundant with possibility.
This volume, then, is a window on that possibility; it is a window on a larger view of science. Will the reader welcome this window? Indeed, we the editors believe that the reader will yearn to peer through.
One final note is in order. This volume represents a massive collective undertaking. It is the first time, to our knowledge, that the humanistic community has mobilized so comprehensively, and so devotedly, around its own distinctive vision.
There was, however, another time when the humanistic community undertook such a concerted project, and Bugental's (1967) Challenges of Humanistic Psychology was its embodiment. We are greatly indebted to both the participants in and the spirit of that trailblazer, and we bear its stamp with pride.
To illuminate humanistic psychology’s present, we must shed light on its past-and what a distinguished and colorful past it has been. What, then, were humanistic psychology's major battles, wounds, and inspirations? Who were the central figures in these scenarios, and how did they influence psychology? Finally, how do we assess the legacy of these pioneers and milestones? Where have they left us as a perspective? To bring these concerns into context, and to set the stage for the unfolding volume, we present four interweaving historical reflections on humanistic psychology.
Beginning with Chapter 1, Donald Moss provides a succinct and informative historical overview of humanistic psychology. From its rudiments in ancient Greece, to its emergence in Judeo-Christianity, to its flowering in the modern age, Moss's "road map" is both unique and foundational.
In Chapter 2, Eugene Taylor and Fred Martin reflect on humanistic psychology's recent lineage and arrive at some rather provocative conclusions. First, there is a window of opportunity for a humanistic reformation in psychology. Second, the question of whether this reformation actually will materialize remains open. Third, the revitalization of humanistic methodology, personology, and psychotherapeutic investigation is likely to bolster the chances of the reformation, whereas the overemphasis on humanistic folk psychology (e.g., meditative and somatic traditions) is likely to dampen these chances. The authors leave us with a challenge: Can humanistic psychology "articulate a phenomenological ... epistemology" as the basis for a new experimental psychology and, beyond that, "a new experimental science," or will it go the way of disconnection from and resultant absorption by the positivistic mainstream?
In the next two chapters, the historical perspective shifts to two relatively hidden, if not neglected, humanistic legacies: women and multiculturalism. In Chapter 3, Ilene Serlin and Eleanor Criswell forcefully argue that although women's relationship to humanistic psychology has been complex, at the same time it has been integral, both practically and theoretically. The authors trace the entangled strands of humanistic psychology's approach to women, women's ambivalent reaction to those entangled strands, and the present challenge for both women and humanistic psychology. Finally, they address the many promising resonances between women and humanistic psychology such as the stress on holism, the prizing of interpersonal connection, and the concern with embodiment. The authors conclude that a revived humanistic psychology is contingent on a revived feminist humanism.
In Chapter 4, Adelbert Jenkins concludes this part of the volume with a focused discussion of humanistic psychology's multicultural legacy. He notes that although humanistic psychology began, and in many cases evolved, in concert with a multicultural consciousness in America, nonwhites tend not to identify with it. He goes on to examine this anomaly, tracing both the humanistic and multicultural bases for its emergence. The perception that humanistic psychology, like much of contemporary psychology as a whole, is the province of white privilege and European individualism has its validity, the author concludes. However, this perception tells only part of the story. He elaborates that humanistic psychology also is profoundly interpersonal and that its accent on the personal gives it a unique slant by which to apprehend the collective world. From this standpoint, the author concludes, culturally diverse populations might reassess their view of humanistic practices, and humanistic practices might undergo a reassessment of their own, becoming broader, deeper, and more sensitized as a result.
Humanist theory has one overriding mission: to unveil the "guts," core, or essence of what it means to be vitally human. At the same time that it engages this mission, however, it also is cognizant of an irony-the mission's futility. Although this qualification might sound odd, it is not particularly so for humanists. This is because, for humanists, the guts, core, and essence of anything is ever evolving, ever eluding our grasp, and ever transforming our assumptions. Yet, it is all worth the effort, according to humanists even, and perhaps especially because of, its puzzlement.
Each generation of humanists, then, returns to the Quixotic quest in full awareness of its incomplete and provisional nature yet also, at the same time, in full awareness of its compelling and edifying nature. This part of the volume explores 11 contemporary angles on what it means to be vitally human. Beginning with broad "Meta-Themes," this part then funnels into narrower domains that both dovetail with and draw on the aforementioned themes.
In Chapter 5, an American pioneer of phenomenological psychology, Amedeo Giorgi, asks what happened to the psyche in psychology and how it can be restored to its rightful place. In response, he concludes
that although the psyche is very much alive in humanity, in academic psychology it has been critically injured. "I am not arguing against interdisciplinary studies such as neuropsychology or psychopharmacological analyses," he states. "What I am arguing is that there should be stronger psychological contributions to such studies and that psychology should not be riding on the coattails of the disciplines with which it is dialoging."
Precisely at a time when managed care, standardization, and medicalization threaten to extinguish the rich legacy of romanticism in psychology, in Chapter 6, Kirk Schneider argues for a return to such romanticism. Echoing Giorgi and augmenting his 1998 American Psychologist article, Schneider advocates a revival of the romantic heritage of Goethe, Blake, and others to resuscitate the promise of psychology.
In Chapter 7, prominent social critic Thomas Szasz turns his attention to the moral dimensions of the current psychological ethos. Specifically, he argues for a recognition of the authority of persons-as opposed to institutions-in the clarifying, formulating, and determining of their mental well-being. To the extent that this authority is endangered, humanity also is imperiled, he challenges.
Pursuing a separate but related line of inquiry in Chapter 8, the chair of humanistic psychology at the University of Southern California, Donald Polkinghorne, investigates contemporary conceptions of the self. In this authoritative commentary, he shows how contemporary perspectives on the self broaden but do not necessarily deepen psychological understanding. Despite the stereotypes about isolated individualism, Polkinghorne elaborates, humanistic psychology offers a dimension of intimacy and embodiment to the study of the self with profound interdisciplinary implications.
Marc Pilisuk leads off the "Contemporary Themes" section with two cutting-edge presentations on humanistic psychology and ecology (with co-author Melanie joy) and humanistic psychology and peace. Pilisuk and Joy (Chapter 9) and Pilisuk (Chapter 10) challenge the assumption that humanism has little to contribute to either the community or the environment but also, equally, that humanism can stand alone within these contexts. They suggest that whereas humanistic psychology offers a keen personal angle on peace and the environment, there are broader issues at play. For example, when many people think of humanistic applications to peace, they immediately flash on that poignant moment when President Jimmy Carter connected personally with Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat at the Camp David peace conference. When they think of humanizing the ecosystem, they envision beautifying a city housing project or pausing to marvel at a sunset. But the authors show that, in addition to these moving applications, humanistic psychology also must scrutinize the government policies that lead to the need for peace conferences and the corporate policies that eventuate in beautification projects. They conclude that only an amalgamated humanistic vision-personal, political, and spiritual-will humanize as intended.
In Chapter 11, Mike Arons and Ruth Richards plumb humanistic psychology's "bread-and-butter" issue-creativity. The chapter opens dramatically with the story of two related "insurgencies": humanistic psychology and creativity research. Conceived just 50 years ago, these parallel movements rocked the psychological world. In a personal memoir Arons and Richards animate the main inspirations of the movement in the works of J. P. Guilford. But they do not stop there. Shifting to the contemporary scene, Arons and Richards then focus on the relevance of the insurgency legacy for three emerging concerns: chaos theory and modern science, health and healing, and everyday or "ordinary" creativity (i.e., the mead of life).
In the subsequent special section chapters, Thomas Greening and Edward Mendelowitz illuminate the rich and underappreciated seedbed of humanistic inquiry-the literary arts. In his opening section, Greening (Chapter 12) taps the linchpin of humanistic literary appreciation-intentionality. The humanistic investigator concerns himself or herself not only with the dynamics of a character's tragic past but also with the character's unfolding present, Greening proposes. Above all, Greening stresses, literature reminds "us that we are in the midst of the most powerful drama we will ever know personally and for which we have responsibility-our own lives." He then goes on to illustrate his thesis with analyses of three Albert Camus parables: The Plague, The Fall, and The Stranger.
Drawing on Federico Fellini's cinematic masterwork, Ginger and Fred, Mendelowitz (Chapter 13) also vivifies Greening's axioms. Hope and despair, folly and arrogance, denial and responsibility-they all are there in the film, which is a mirror of our times. Through Fellim's festival of life, Mendelowitz anatomizes culture, personality, and spirit. He leaves us with a caveat: "The filmmaker has much to teach us about the world we inhabit and share and the incompleteness we mostly embody and still long to surpass, about the sheer madness and mystery of being in a new millennial landscape and terrain." Ginger and Fred, Mendelowitz concludes evocatively, "is the artist's peek behind the proscenium arch.... It is psychology."
In Chapter 14, Gayle Privette transports us to the passionate science of peak performance and peak experience. Following the lead of Maslow as well as her own extensive investigations, she considers "peak" dimensions across numerous spheres of functioning-from daily life, to recreational activity, to work and home environments, to interpersonal relationships, to love. Although peak performers and experiencers are not always wise, graceful, or even competent, Privette shows, they almost invariably are engaged. This engagement pays off big, she concludes, as lives are transformed in its wake.
Opening the "Emergent Trends" section, David Feinstein (Chapter 15) presents a groundbreaking theory of personal myths. Personal myths are "organizing models that shape perception, understanding, and nonlocal physics, Feinstein formulates his concept of "mythic fields" and '' then leads us on a most fascinating tour of anomalous human experiences-at-a-distance healing, "energy" medicine, "idio-savant" phenomena, and "psychotherapeutic resonance." He concludes that with a more precise understanding of the operation of mythic fields, it will be much more possible to "tailor" healing modalities.
In Chapter 16, David Elkins provides an intimate humanistic reflection on spirituality. Although "spirit" and "humanism" might at first seem antithetical, he shows how they can intricately meld. Drawing on his own hard-won experiences as well as those of existential-theological scholars, Elkins evokes a spirituality of awe. This is a spirituality that too often is overlooked today but that has a time-honored lineage. Like Buber, Otto, Tillich, and many before them, Elkins responds to the question "What does it mean to be fully experientially human?" with both humility and boldness and both conviction and doubt. He translates this sensibility to his philosophy, his theology, and his practice.
In Chapter 17, Chris Aanstoos rounds out this section with a humanizing reflection on technology. Beginning with the challenges to humanistic psychology posed by cognitive science, he moves on to the more general concerns raised by technology. By tracing the historical and psychological roots of these movements, Aanstoos illuminates not only their appeal but also their perniciousness. In the balance of his commentary, he highlights humanistic psychology's critical role, not just as an adversary of these burgeoning trends but also as a constructive respondent.
This is a fervent time for humanistic research and theory building. As we saw in the previous part of this volume, there is a wealth of humanistic cross-fertilization occurring within psychology, and if trends continue, efforts in that direction will only intensify. The basis for this transitional moment is complex, but there are at least three developments that are fueling it: the general discontent with managed care, the growing disillusionment among both practitioners
and practice-oriented researchers with conventional empirical research, and the rising allure of alternative (e.g., postpositivistic) epistemologies and methodologies (Bickman,1999; Cain & Seeman, in press). The confluence of these trends is highly auspicious for humanistic psychology. In as much as humanistic psychology has long been critical of and supported alternatives to conventional psychological scholarship, it is in a prime position to provide both guidance and concrete assistance in the rebuilding of the discipline.
Humanistic research (also called human science research methodology) is poised to take center stage in this heightening conflict. To the extent that theoreticians and practitioners look to fuller, deeper, and more holistic modes to understand and "treat" human experience, the human science research paradigm should provide relevant and critical support. The basis for this contention is that human science research prizes intimacy of understanding as much as, if not more than, concision of understanding. In addition, it favors details, complexity, and plausibility over standardization, linearity, and objectification. Although human science does not reject hypothetico-deductive-inductive methods, it views them as adjunctive and in need of experiential supplementation. That being said, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi also makes an important point in the Preface to this volume about the risks of obscurantism in human science research and the necessity for critical systematic reflection. Fortunately, there have been a number of attempts to redress this concern, as we shall see in this part of the volume.
The virtue of human science methodology is that it can dramatically revitalize psychology's time-honored inquiries-why people think, feel, and act against their ostensible interests; what motivates people to thrive versus merely exist; why wealth does not automatically buy happiness; why IQ does not necessarily correlate with morality and adjustment does not necessarily equate with passion; and, finally, how psychology is to respond to the radical alteration of human identity wrought by technology. Going beyond the objective report or measure, humanistic methodologies can at last return to the subtle and nuanced contexts about which reports or measures center; moreover, they can open the door to the reassessment of volumes of inadequate studies-legions of remote nonnaturalistic investigations and scores of anonymous and aggregated findings (Shedler, Maymen, & Manis,1993).
In short, human science research methodology is poised to turn over a new chapter in empirical psychological inquiry and, indeed, in science itself.
In this part of the volume, we present five representative illustrations of contemporary human science research. In Chapter 18, Fred Wertz sets the table for these illustrations with his magnificent overview of the qualitative research tradition in humanistic psychology. Although the qualitative tradition is by no means exclusive within humanistic research, it generally is considered to be the optimal staging ground within which to situate most person-centered inquiry. Following his historical and conceptual overview of the qualitative tradition, Wertz goes on to elucidate its present and future directions. Of particular note is his eye-opening discussion of Gordon Allport's little-known treatise on qualitative research commissioned by the U.S. government during the 1930s. In this hard-hitting document, Allport formulated one of the most cogent cases for the supplementation of mainstream inquiry with systematic qualitative inquiry ever to be proposed. But tragically, and not surprisingly within the hegemony of American positivistic psychology, Allport's document was quashed and quickly forgotten.
In Chapter 19, which begins the "Contemporary Themes" section, Scott Churchill teams with Wertz to provide a fresh and original distillation of phenomenological research methodology, incorporating both historical and conceptual elements along with clear guidelines for application. Their case illustration, the experience of criminal victimization, is both timely and poignant, and it serves as a superb example of their formulation.
In Chapter 20, Clark Moustakas furnishes a masterful rendering of his pioneering heuristic methodology. In this animated statement, he details the principles of his approach, the steps by which it proceeds, and the fruits that it reaps for both traditional and nontraditional investigators. Moustakas concludes that, regardless of the "facts" derived, discovery is an essential and ongoing element of inquiry.
Humanistic narrative research is the subject of Ruthellen Josselson and Amia Lieblich's commentary in Chapter 21. With incisive clarity, the authors elucidate both the history and development of humanistic narra tive research (including its roots in literature), vivify the current controversies surrounding the research, and survey its copious applications. Leading off the "Emergent Trends" section is the humanizing voice of Stanley Krippner in Chapter 22. Krippner; a prominent consciousness researcher, anatomizes contemporary humanistic research methodology in the light of postmodernity. A highlight of his chapter is his keen analysis of the contrasts and parallels between humanistic and postmodern modalities and their potential for integration. Like others in this volume, Krippner concludes that humanistic and postmodern inquiries are richly linked, provide key counterbalances to each other, and broaden immeasurably psychology's vibrant investigative range.
Psychotherapy outcome research has a long and distinguished humanistic legacy. For a variety of reasons, however, recent humanistic scholars have neglected such research and, ironically, have undermined themselves as a result. Today, this situation is shifting yet again. In the final two chapters of this section, Kirk Schneider and Robert Elliott show that not only can humanistic outcome research be illuminating, it can also be methodologically convincing. In Chapter 23, Schneider presents a novel and highly sensitive case design methodology termed multiple-case depth research (MCDR). MCDR combines case study design with depth experiential therapeutic principles. To illustrate the power of MCDR, Schneider presents a hypothetical psychotherapy process and outcome study involving three client cohorts (those who undergo cognitive-behavioral, intersubjective psychoanalytic, or existential/humanistic psychotherapy). He concludes that MCDR, if conducted properly, can provide rich, valid, and unprecedented investigative yields.
In Chapter 24, Elliott offers an overview of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design. With this groundbreaking synthesis, he brings both depth and finely honed logic to the study of clinical outcomes. Elliott poses a challenge: Can we make humanistic inquiry "transparent, systematic, and self-reflective enough to convince ourselves and others" of its validity? Furthermore, he asks, can we "do justice to each client's uniqueness while still" determining whether "(a) ... the client has changed, (b) ... the observed changes are credible, and (c) ... [the] changes have anything to do with our work as therapists"? With these challenges in mind, Elliott responds with deftness and clarity.
Humanistic psychology is founded on a dedication to the conviction that life has greater potential than has yet been realized and an openness to a wide range of observations, methods, and practices. In this perspective, we draw humility, challenge, and encouragement from the realization of how much about human beings is yet unknown. Commitment, struggle, successes and failures, and a continually receding frontier await those who would join us. -James E T. Bugental, "Rollo May Award," 1997
Innovate approaches to practice have been a hallmark of humanistic psychology from its inception. The current generation of practitioners builds on a rich legacy from the founders of humanistic psychology. These include pioneers such as Charlotte Buhler, Viktor Frankl, Sidney Jourard, Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, Virginia Stir, and James Bugental, whose contributions to depth psychotherapy span five decades and continue to blaze trails today. The founders were men and women of courage-"heart" who established an alternative philosophical stance "with [its] own distinctive views of human nature ... and of psychotherapy" (American Psychological Association, 2000).
Similar courage is required during this era. A challenge for humanistic practitioners is to honor the perspective's ideals and values as formalized in the "Guidelines for the Provision of Humanistic Services," (Bohart et al., 1997) and to respond in keeping with these guidelines to the sociopolitical realities of the time (in the United States)-the influences of the managed care industry, the glamour of the biomedical model, and the pressure to work from positivistic, empirically supported manualized treatment protocols.
In this part of the volume, we first present a sample of contemporary applications to practice that represent the breadth and depth of current interests among humanistic psychotherapists and counselors. Contributors to this section demonstrate the courage and vision of the founders as they open exciting frontiers of practice and, in fresh ways, explore perennial themes in the context of our complex postmodern world.
In Chapter 25, leading off the "Contemporary Themes" section, John Welwood envisions the core process of change in psychotherapy as an unfolding emerging experience that draws on the wisdom of the body-mind connection. The unfolding process, which is "at the heart of all creative discovery," is not a technique in the ordinary sense of the word but rather a capacity latent within the client that can be taught and encouraged to develop in psychotherapy. Welwood identifies the intriguing relationship between the dynamics of unfolding in the context of psychotherapy and our capacity for spiritual awakenings-opening to the farther reaches of our human potential.
The quality of the relationship between therapist and client has long captured the attention of humanistic theorists and therapists. It is recognized as the medium in which the client reclaims his or her wholeness. In a special section, Maurice Friedman and Molly Sterling explore the responsibility of the therapist. In Chapter 26, Friedman begins by defining the essence of responsibility as "responding to the person before you as a person," that is, responding as "I to thou" in each unique therapeutic relationship. Responding means "hearing the unreduced claim of each hour in all its crudeness and disharmony and answering it out of the depths of one's being." In Chapter 27, Sterling's vivid case example invites us to enter into the lived experience of being called to respond during the therapy hour. In the process, she underscores the importance of the therapist's presence and deepens our understanding of the responsibilities of both client and therapist.
How do we be what we hope to teach others? What does it mean to be a humanistic therapist? What are the personal benefits and costs of embracing humanistic values? In Chapter 28, Jeffrey Kottler and Richard Hazler candidly explore these questions and the challenges they present.
Courage, on the part of both the therapist and the client, is a theme that runs throughout the chapters in this section. In Chapter 29, Clemmont Vontress and Lawrence Epp provide an existential model of culture and suggest that everyone is multicultural in the sense that "most people are products of five concentric and intersecting cultures: universal, ecological, national, regional, and racial/ethnic. " The counselor is challenged to be a "macroscopic and holistic thinker," that is, to see beyond superficial cultural differences and to help the client identify imbalances among the four spheres of existence. Such counselors are "necessarily artists, who are creative, individualistic, and fluid in their work and who have a spiritual connection with each client"; they are in relationship with their clients as "fellow travelers." Vontress and Epp explore concepts that help counselors to understand the influence of culture in clients' lives and offer practical suggestions for working with "culturally different" clients.
The ability of the therapist to enter into the phenomenological world of the client is also central to the success of the Soteria Project, an innovative and humanizing alternative to psychiatric hospitalization described by Loren Mosher in Chapter 30. The Soteria approach, based on the practice of interpersonal phenomenology, offered a "confiding relationship" to clients diagnosed with schizophrenia and an environment in which recovery from psychosis was expected. Follow-up studies comparing the Soteria method to general psychiatric hospitalization suggests that the former offered highly effective therapeutic interventions and cost-effectiveness. Intriguingly, despite the documented success of Soteria and its replication facilities, it has all but vanished from the consciousness of American psychiatry. Did it threaten the biomedical perspective currently held by the American Psychiatric Association and supported by the pharmaceutical industry? Mosher closes his thought-provoking chapter with a summary of how he prefers to work with his clients and their families along with this poignant statement: "When successful, there is no more schizophrenia, only two or more humans who have been through a shared, awesome, subjective experience."
The next two chapters constitute a special section on awe and terror in humanistic therapy. In Chapter 31, Mark Stern continues the theme of humanizing and demedicalizing psychotherapy. Through the use of riveting dialogue, he enacts a mutually transformative therapeutic relationship with Father Gregory, a man struggling with obsessive thoughts and compulsive rituals, a priest having trouble in "discriminat[ing] between the mercilessness of awe as servile adoration and awe as earnest devotion." We are drawn into the drama of the relationship and experience the therapist's attempt to "embrace the client's awe equally as agony and aspiration."
In Chapter 32, Alvin Mahrer describes another way in which awe is manifested in psychotherapy-the awe-full moment evoked in the context of an experiential session. His chapter is an invitation to take a "baby step" toward having such a session. Mahrer beckons with an in-depth description of the ways in which awe-full moments may occur and the qualitative transformations in one's sense of self that accompany this process.
Humanistic and the postmodern constructivist approaches to psychotherapy share the underlying goal of liberating the individual to live more fully, creatively, and courageously. In Chapter 33, Larry Leitner and Franz Epting provide an overview of constructivism as a "firmly humanistic approach" albeit still relatively overlooked by humanistic practitioners. As the authors highlight constructivist philosophies and approaches to therapy, the compatibility with humanistic theory and practice is clearly evident. The potential power and effectiveness of this perspective in action is revealed by several descriptive examples of constructivist psychotherapy. Leitner and Epting conclude their chapter by stating, "To truly have a rich discipline, we must understand the magnificent creature we call a person." Both constructivist and humanistic therapists seek to understand the experiential worlds of their clients. They do not seek to impose meanings; rather, they seek to understand their clients' "truths" as the basis from which to work together in collaborative relationships.
Searching for meaning in loss is a process that we, as embodied human creatures, are called on to do throughout our lives. In Chapter 34, Myrtle Heery describes the process of searching for meaning in loss-a companion to the existential "givens" of embodiment and finitude-as a journey into uncharted territory for each individual. Her work with people who are bereaved suggests some "stations" typically encountered during the ongoing search process. She invites the reader to explore his or her own losses and to discover the stations of his or her uniquely courageous journey. Heery ends her deeply moving chapter with a question for each of us as therapists: "Can we remain open to accompany our clients into the depths of their hearts?" Are we prepared? Acknowledgment of the spiritual dimensions of the search is among the challenges facing contemporary psychology.
Distinguishing and agreeing on the points of philosophical interface between humanistic and existential approaches to psychotherapy is a long-standing challenge for many who identify with the "third force." In Chapter 35, John Rowan and, with a reply, Ernesto Spinelli provide animated British perspectives and decided opinions on the relationship between humanistic therapy and existential analysis. From our perspective, humansitic psychology is making increasing room for both.
The final three chapters in this part of the volume give a sampling of current trends and considerations in humanistic applications to practice. In Chapter 36, Maureen O'Hara begins the "Emergent Trends" section by providing an enlightening examination of humanistic psychology "in its historical, cultural, philosophical, and marketplace contexts" and argues convincingly that the perspective should not continue to try to justify itself from the bases of an outdated, limited scientific worldview and as part of a powerful, industrialized medical system, however much in vogue at the present time. O'Hara supports the belief that humanistic and transpersonal psychologies "comprise ... transformative practices with something different and ... far more timely and relevant to offer an emerging global community in search of its psychological and spiritual bearings." She sounds the clarion call for a postmodern emancipatory humanistic psychology that "draws on the best of its past as well as on constructivist developments in theory and on the newer neurosciences and advances in mind-body studies." Such a theoretically renewed humanistic psychology has a potentially vital role to play in cultural transformation.
In Chapter 37, Will Wadlington also challenges the reader to stretch beyond modernistic conceptualizations of psychotherapy-to "step outside modernism" and expand his or her vision of what constitutes new practices and therapies. Performative social therapy is an example of a new humanistic practice, one that fosters collaborative improvisation as opposed to theory-guided problem solving. Wadlington's description of this revolutionary approach provides an intriguing vision of what is possible as we re-vision humanistic psychology to make it "relevant to the diverse multicultural social context of everyday postmodern life."
In Chapter 38, Jeanne Watson and Arthur Bohart discuss an alternative trend. They present ideas on how experiential therapists can thrive within the current mental health care system without forfeiting the essence of their approaches. Watson and Bohart address the realities of practicing within the time-limited managed care environment and provide specific suggestions for adapting five humanistic-experiential approaches. The authors highlight Bohart and Tallman's (1999) view of clients as "active self-healers" as being compatible with contemporary stances and as offering a meta-theory for working within managed care environments.
A mélange of contemporary humanistic applications and emerging trends is presented in the nine chapters that constitute this part of the volume. They exemplify the broad range of settings in which the humanistic perspective is expressed and those in which it is currently making consequential advances. The central threads that tie them together are the principles that have been at the core of humanistic studies for more than 30 years: "an allegiance to meaningfulness in the selection of problems for study" (Buhler & Bugental,1965-1966), the "aim to be faithful to the full range of human experience" (American Psychological Association, 2000), and concern "with those aspects of the human experience which have importance in daily life" (Bugental,1967, p. 7). The reader should keep in mind that although the provocative topics considered in these chapters have long been within the purview of the humanistic perspective, some have not always been welcomed in mainstream academic psychology (e.g., romantic love, psychotherapist as artist, play, somatic medicine, the transpersonal). Even today, some of the topics to come might be considered deliciously nontraditional.
Constance Fischer's engaging chapter opens the "Contemporary Themes" section. In Chapter 39, her fresh view of personality assessment incorporates traditional psychological measures and projective techniques but with a decidedly humanistic twist. Fischer describes the collaborative interpersonal relationships created with her clients in every stage of her approach to the process, from establishing the goals of assessment to interpreting scores. Excerpts from assessment sessions and an example of a portion of a written report further illuminate the potential therapeutic benefits of the collaborative approach. Anticipating commonly asked questions about the approach, she concludes with a clarifying question-and-answer format.
The development of the therapist as a person is central to the preparation of existential-humanistic therapists. In Chapter 40, J. Fraser Pierson and Jeff Sharp present participant-observers' views of The Art of the Psychotherapist (or "Arts") courses, a unique experiential training program designed to explicitly and implicitly teach an existential/humanistic approach to psychotherapy. They describe the philosophy, content, and process of the Arts program and provide highlights from a recent survey of participants. The most prominent themes observed in survey respondents' narrative answers are discussed and illustrated with selected quotations that provide the reader with intimate glimpses of the experience of being an Arts participant. Pierson and Sharp describe a model program that is perceived to strengthen professional identity and the ability to embody, not merely cognize, living existential-humanistic therapeutic principles.
In Chapter 41, Hobart Thomas describes his approach to facilitating creative, experiential, whole person learning within the university classroom. Inspired by Rogers's views on education, and drawing on his own experiences as a faculty member in the experimental interdisciplinary School of Expressive Arts at Sonoma State University during the 1970s, Thomas offers insights and ideas on ways in which a required course may simultaneously stimulate students' emotional and intellectual development and meet the realities of a traditional academic institution. His guiding question is as follows: How can an academic requirement be '" made to serve the individual, the master within each person who at some; deep level knows what is right for that person?
"Play [is] at the heart of life itself," writes 0. Fred Donaldson, a " man whose playmate-teachers include people of all ages and many othei animals including dolphins, wolves, and Beluga whales. In Chapter 42, Donaldson reminds us of the original sense of play we had as children before it was lost in the process of enculturation, a learning process in which play becomes a competitive cultural game with winners and losers and inculcates fear. The stakes are high: "Our contest consciousness makes wisdom and the ecological mind impossible, splintering our consciousness and severing our ties with other life forms." He explores and illustrates what it means to "play by heart," that is, to stop living life as '" a contest and to allow the absolute kindness of original play to come alive in the world.
In Chapter 43, Eleanor Criswell provides a comprehensive overview of approaches to healing that integrate mental and physical practices. She provides an enlightening examination of the origins of the split between psychological and physical methods, the nature and practice of mind/body medicine, and contributors to this emerging field. Humanistic psychology, with its emphasis on human potential and focus on the whole person, is credited with playing an important role in the development of this contemporary mind/body medical perspective. Actualization of the individual's fullest potential and overall health and well-being is the ultimate goal. In the process, Criswell suggests, the individual patient or client and health care professional enter into a partnership that benefits both; the individual potentially enjoys increased autonomy and responsibility for his or her own health, and medical costs and demands on an overtaxed system are reduced.
"The allure of romance flickers as both an enduring predicament and a recurring opportunity of the human spirit," writes Kenneth Bradford in Chapter 44. Bradford explores the mythic ideal of romantic love, a legacy from the courtly love ethic of the Middle Ages and the conflicts inherent within this idealization-the tensions between erotic desire and security needs. He illuminates a path of genuine romantic love for the 21st century, a path of potential transformation that requires discipline and practice, a path toward deep wholehearted loving where each person in the relationship is liberated and further opened to the awe of being.
Chapter 45 in this panoply is a little different from the others in that it combines a chapter by Roger Walsh with a companion commentary by Kirk Schneider. Walsh begins this thought-provoking chapter by stating that the "existential and transpersonal disciplines have similar concerns and much to offer each other." He then proceeds to compare and contrast the existential and transpersonal perspectives relative to four intriguing topics. In the process, he identifies important distinctions between the traditions. A particularly stimulating point of departure concerns the transpersonal perspective on "transconventional" stages of development. Walsh and Schneider engage in a lively exchange of comments and comparisons that serve to further clarify the philosophical positions of both perspectives. They agree that a more collaborative path would be fruitful. Although Schneider believes that Walsh presents a comparatively balanced view, Schneider takes the opportunity to diffuse an idea often stressed by transpersonal writers: "that transpersonal contexts eclipse or encompass the existential."
In Chapter 46, Arthur Lyons opens the "Emergent Trends" section by challenging those of us who hold humanistic values dear to become more involved in modifying and influencing societal institutions, laws, and customs and to contribute to an emerging trend toward social activ ism that promotes equal opportunity to live the "good life." He points out that humanistic psychology's historical and philosophical basis has long supported social activism, and he offers inspiring examples of humanistically based grassroots social service programs. Lyons calls on humanistic psychology to "claim its own future" during the 21st century instead of being perceived as a reactionary "third force." To do so is predicated on becoming an increasingly more visible and tangible positive force within the larger social and political arenas that ultimately influence people's lives. It appears that mainstream psychology is beginning to recognize the wisdom of some of the earlier humanistic theorists as the new "positive psychology" embraces a focus on promoting positive qualities at both the individual and cultural levels.
In Chapter 47, Alfonse Montuori and Ron Purser explore trends in humanistic psychology in the workplace. They begin by tracing the history of humanistic psychology's influence on organization development theory and practice, particularly highlighting the contributions of Maslow and Rogers. Although they have witnessed a decrease in humanistic psychology's role within organization development over the past two decades, they foresee valuable contributions yet to be made. Changing social and economic trends augur a resurgence of interest in what the humanistic and existential traditions have to contribute. Montuori and Purser also explore several emerging possibilities for "cross-pollination" between theoretical orientations, spotlighting the work of Pauchant and Associates (1995) on "organizational existentialism" as an especially intriguing development. Montuori and Purser conclude with several suggestions for humanistic psychologists who want to "seize this opportunity" for making more potent contributions in the workplace.
In the concluding part of the volume, we are afforded the chance to pause, take our collective breath, and consider the meaning of the volume in light of the new millennium. The chief questions of this section are as follows. Where is humanistic psychology headed today? What are the major challenges it faces? What are the implications of these challenges for psychology as a whole?
In Chapter 48, Arthur Warmoth provides a detailed commentary on Old Saybrook 2, a landmark humanistic conference held at the State University of West Georgia in May 2000. Old Saybrook 2 is a sequel to the 1964 meeting at Old Saybrook, Connecticut, that is generally considered to be the launching point for organized humanistic psychology. Whereas a handful of luminaries attended the original Old Saybrook conference (e.g., Bugental, May, Maslow, Rogers, Allport), more than 100 such scholars attended Old Saybrook 2. In illuminating fashion, Warmoth reviews the highlights of the conference, considers their relevance to the present volume, and draws out their contemporary significance. For Warmoth, these highlights comprise a "rich" mix of "spiritual ideology, democratic values, and professional aspirations," and they pose timely and urgent challenges to professionals and consumers alike.
In Chapter 49, Michael Mahoney and Sean Mahoney provide an eloquent reflection on the current ambiguities facing both humanistic psychology as well as mainstream psychology. Echoing Warmoth's distilla tion and drawing liberally from the humanistic-existential tradition, Mahoney and Mahoney make the key point that wherever psychology polarizes, it becomes devitalized. On the other hand, wherever psychology embraces tensions and polarities, it evolves, expands, and renews its potentialities. During an era of quick fixes and pat answers, the question of psychology's encounter with ambiguity is evocative, and despairingly few seem to be raising it. Mahoney and Mahoney, however, challenge psychology-as well as polarizing forces within humanistic psychology-to acknowledge our multifaceted nature and to pioneer what is possible rather than merely resigning to what exists.
In their closing statements, the editors distill their respective reflections on this volume. James Bugental recognizes the ambitiousness of the humanistic undertaking, challenges the dependency needs of objectified psychology, and calls for the careful building of a profound yet complementary humanistic vision. In her poignant style, J. Fraser Pierson relates the breadth and vibrancy of the humanistic quest. By discovering our selves through others, she concludes, humanistic psychology is becoming a planetary psychology-a psychology for all life. Kirk Schneider closes the volume with a hopeful review of humanistic developments. He perceives the contrails of an emerging personalism in psychology, and he calls on all who resonate with this volume to engage and advance it.
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