Cheese Problems Solved edited by P. McSweeny
(CRC) Cheese is a unique food product which requires a
significant amount of scientific knowledge to be produced
successfully. However, due to the many complex and inter-related
changes which occur during cheese manufacture and ripening, it is
still not possible to guarantee the production of premium quality
cheese. Written by an international team of renowned contributors,
Cheese problems solved provides responses to around 200 of the most
frequently asked questions about cheese and the cheesemaking
process, in a unique and practical question-and-answer
format.Opening chapters concentrate on queries regarding the
preparation of cheesemilk, the conversion of milk to curd, the
ripening process, pathogens, cheese analysis and the nutritional
aspects of cheese, among other issues. The latter part of the book
discusses particular types of cheeses including Cheddar, Grana-type
cheeses, Mozzarella, Blue, Swiss and Dutch cheeses, to name but a
Edited by a leading expert and with contributions from
specialists in this area, Cheese problems solved will be an
essential reference source and problem-solving manual for
professionals and trainees in the cheese industry.
P. L. H. McSweeney is Associate Professor in the Department
of Food and Nutritional Sciences at University College Cork,
Ireland. Dr McSweeney is internationally recognised for his research
in cheese science.
Although cheese is a very ancient food product which
originated close to the dawn of agriculture, it is still not
possible to guarantee the production of premium quality cheese. The
way in which cheese ripens and its quality are often heavily
dependent on very small differences in its compositional
characteristics. Most cheeses are also very dynamic products and
change substantially during ripening. For these reasons, more
scientific knowledge is necessary for the successful manufacture of
cheese than for perhaps any other food product.
The objective of this book is to provide practical
knowledge about cheese and problems which occur during its
manufacture in a unique question-and-answer format which will allow
cheesemakers to find information quickly. Because many of the issues
dealt with in this book are complex, it is often possible to provide
only an overview of the topic and to highlight its main points. In
the case of some entries, the objective is to start the reader
thinking along the right lines; cheesemakers will require further
information before being confident of the solution to a particular
problem. Hence, most entries contain a list of Further reading to
which the reader is directed for more detailed information on the
problem being discussed. In addition, there are relatively few
simple cause-andeffect relationships in cheese, and varying one
factor often causes changes to numerous other parameters in the
cheese. Because of this and to avoid overlap between certain
questions, each entry contains cross-references which direct the
reader to other entries containing information of relevance to the
topic being discussed. This book presupposes the level of knowledge
of dairy chemistry and cheese science and technology that would be
common among people working in the dairy industry. Hence, there is
little discussion of cheesemaking technology or science beyond that
essential for the topic under consideration. There follows a list of
texts on cheese science and technology and dairy chemistry to which
the reader is directed to learn more about the science and
technology underpinning cheese manufacture.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 What is the typical composition of cow's milk
and what milk constituents favour cheesemaking?
- 3 How do seasonal variations in milk composition
affect cheese quality?
- 4 What are milk salts and how do they affect the
properties of cheese?
- 5 What are the compositions of other species'
milks and how does this affect their cheesemaking
- Preparation of cheesemilk
- 6 Introduction
- 7 What problems are caused by psychrotrophs?
- 8 Why do elevated somatic cell counts cause
difficulty in cheesemaking?
- 9 Why must milk be standardised for cheesemaking?
- 10 Why is cheesemilk usually pasteurised?
- 11 What effects does pasteurisation have on
- 12 How does one improve the cheesemaking
properties of over-pasteurised milk?
- 13 What is thermisation and why is it used?
- 14 Why are colours sometimes added to cheesemilk?
- 15 What effects does cold storage have on the
properties of milk?
- Ultrafiltration of cheesemilk
- 16 Why is ultrafiltration used for cheesemaking
and how is it applied?
- 17 Introduction
- 18 What are starters and what starter types are
used for cheesemaking?
- 19 What problems are caused by antibiotic residues
- 20 What are lactenins and how do these natural
substances inhibit acid production?
- 21 What are bacteriophage and what strategies
should be used to avoid phage infection?
- 22 What factors affect the buffering capacity of
- 23 What enzymes from starters contribute to cheese
- Conversion of milk to curd
- 24 Introduction: how does rennet coagulate milk?
- 25 Why is the Phe-Met bond of k-casein so
susceptible to rennet action?
- 26 How can one demonstrate that there are two
stages to rennet coagulation?
- 27 What enzymes are in rennet?
- 28 What factors affect the retention of rennet in
- 29 What rennet substitutes are suitable for
- 30 What factors affect rennet coagulation time?
- 31 What effects has homogenisation of milk on the
manufacture and quality of cheese?
- 32 How does homogenisation affect the
functionality of cheese?
- 33 Why is CaCl2 often added to cheesemilk?
- 34 Introduction: what is syneresis?
- 35 How does the composition of milk affect
- 36 What processing variables affect syneresis?
- 37 Why are certain cook temperatures used for
- 38 What is case hardening and what problems does
- Salt in cheese
- 39 Introduction: what are the functions of NaC1 in
- 40 What are the typical NaC1 levels in different
- 41 What are the differences between dry-salting
- 42 What factors affect salt uptake in cheese curd?
- 43 How does NaC1 affect cheese composition?
- 44 What causes the outside of brine-salted cheese
to become slimy and sticky?
- 45 How should cheese brine be prepared and
- 46 How does NaC1 affect the microbiology of
- 47 How can one make low-sodium cheese?
- Cheese yield
- 48 Introduction: why is cheese yield important?
- 49 How is cheese yield defined?
- 50 How can cheese yield be predicted?
- 51 What factors associated with the milk affect
- 52 What factors under the control of the
cheesemaker affect yield?
- New technologies
- 53 What potential uses do high hydrostatic
pressures and high-pressure homogenisation have in
- The microbiology of cheese
- 54 Introduction
- 55 What factors affect microbial growth in cheese?
- 56 What are non-starter lactic acid bacteria and
how do they affect cheese quality?
- 57 What causes the development of gas during
- Pathogens and food poisoning bacteria
- 58 Introduction
- 59 What cheeses are most liable to pathogens?
- 60 Which pathogens survive pasteurisation and
which are killed?
- 61 Do pathogens grow during cheese ripening?
- 62 What is Mycobacterium avium subsp.
paratuberculosis and how is it controlled?
- 63 Is Escherichia coli 0157:H7 of concern to
- 64 What factors should be considered to reduce
- 65 What are enterococci and are they pathogenic?
- 66 What factors should be considered when
developing a HACCP plan for cheesemaking?
- 67 What are biogenic amines and how are they
- 68 What are mycotoxins, where do they come from
and what problems do they cause?
- Nutritional aspects of cheese
- 69 Introduction
- 70 What are typical levels of vitamins in
- 71 Is cheese good for your teeth?
- 72 What are typical calcium levels in different
- 73 Introduction: how may cheese be packaged?
- 74 Why does mould develop under the packaging?
- Whey processing
- 75 What products may be produced from whey?
- Analysis of cheese
- 76 Introduction
- 77 What is the correct way to sample cheese for
- 78 How are volatile flavour compounds measured in
- 79 What procedures are available for the sensory
analysis of cheese and are they reliable?
- 80 How reliable is cheese grading?
- Principal families of cheese
- 81 Introduction
- 82 What is a 'controlled designation of origin'?
- 83 How are cheese varieties classified?
- 84 How did cheese originate?
- 85 Who are the major cheese consumers and
producers in the world?
- 86 What are the differences between acid-curd
cheese and yoghurt/fermented milks?
- Flavour, texture and flavour
defects in hard and semi-hard cheeses
- 87 Introduction
- 88 How does flavour develop in cheese during
- 89 How can the problem of bitterness in cheese be
- 90 What is hydrolytic rancidity and how can it be
- 91 What is late gas blowing and how may this
defect be avoided?
- 92 What general factors affect the texture of hard
and semi-hard cheeses?
- 93 Cheese is weak-bodied. What strategies could be
adopted to produce a firmer cheese and what are the effects
of each treatment?
- 94 What strategies should be adopted and what are
the effects of each treatment to obtain a less acid Cheddar
- 95 What strategies can be adopted to soften the
texture of a hard cheese?
- Grana-type cheeses and
- 96 Introduction
- 97 What causes the traditional grainy texture of
Italian Grana-type cheeses?
- 98 What common problems are associated with Grana-type
- 99 How do traditional Italian Grana-type cheeses
and industrial `Parmesan' differ?
- Cheddar cheese
- 100 Introduction
- 101 What is cheddaring and what physicochemical
changes occur during this process?
- 102 What are the mechanical and slit openings in
Cheddar and how may they be avoided?
- 103 Why do salted Cheddar curd pieces not fuse
- 104 Why is it important to control the composition
of Cheddar cheese to ensure high quality?
- 105 Why does cheese develop a pink discoloration?
- 106 What factors lead to texture defects in
low-fat/reduced-fat Cheddar cheese?
- 107 What factors favour the development of calcium
lactate crystals in cheese?
- Dutch-type cheeses
- 108 Introduction
- 109 Why is the surface of Gouda cheese slimy and
- 110 Why is the texture of Gouda cheese tough and
the flavor flat?
- 111 Why does Gouda cheese have a soapy off-flavour?
- 112 Why does Gouda cheese have irregular eye
- 113 What problems do Propionibacterium spp. cause
in Gouda cheese? How are they controlled?
- 114 Under which conditions do blisters occur under
the wax layer of Gouda-type cheese?
- 115 How may late blowing be avoided in Gouda-type
- 116 How can excessive gas formation by
thermophilic streptococci take place in Gouda cheese?
- Swiss cheese
- 117 Introduction
- 118 What factors affect eye development in Swiss
- 119 What causes 'blind' Emmental cheese?
- 120 What causes irregular eye formation, slits or
cracks in Emmental cheese?
- 121 What is aspartase of Propionibacterium?
- 122 How does aspartase activity of
Propionibacterium affect Swiss cheese?
- 123 How may the size and quantity of the eyes in
Emmental-type cheese be controlled?
- 124 How do I control the elastic texture of
- 125 Why does Swiss cheese have a sweet flavour?
- 126 What are the causes of the most common flavour
defects of Swiss cheese?
- 127 Is Emmental cheese hygienically safe?
- White-mould cheese
- 128 Introduction
- 129 Why does the surface pH in Camembert cheese
not increase adequately?
- 130 Why is mould development on Camembert or Brie
- 131 Why does Camembert or Brie have a grey or
- 132 Why does the texture of Camembert or Brie
remain too hard?
- 133 Why does Camembert-type cheese become too
- 134 How are spoilage fungi controlled in
- 135 How may the 'toad-skin' and 'cat-hair' defects
of Camembert cheese be solved?
- 136 What causes bitterness and other flavour
defects in Camembert?
- Blue cheese
- 137 Introduction: what are Blue cheese varieties?
- 138 Why does Blue cheese develop brown spots?
- 139 How may spoilage fungi be controlled in Blue
- 140 Why does Blue cheese not develop adequate
- Bacterial surface-ripened
- 141 Introduction: what are bacterial
surface-ripened (smear) cheeses?
- 142 What organisms grow on the surface of smear
- 143 Why might smear cheese develop excessive
- 144 Why does cheese not develop an adequate smear?
- 145 How may patchy smear development be avoided?
Mozzarella cheese (LMMC)
- 146 Introduction
- 147 What are pasta-filata cheeses and what
physicochemical changes occur during cooking/stretching?
- 148 How can expression of free watery serum be
avoided in cooked LMMC?
- 149 I recently changed from bacterial to direct
acidification. Why is my LMMC different?
- 150 How may moisture levels in LMMC be controlled
and what changes should be expected if moisture changes?
- 151 Shredded cheese tends to mat together into wet
aggregates. How may the shreddability of LMMC be improved?
- 152 Why does LMMC not develop a smooth stretchable
consistency on heating?
- 153 Why does LMMC become excessively soft and
fluid on heating?
- 154 Why does LMMC have poor flowability?
- 155 Why does LMMC brown excessively on cooking?
- 156 Why and how do the functional properties of
LMMC change on heating?
- 157 Why does LMMC become excessively soft and
gummy during ripening?
- 158 What factors affect the functionality of LMMC?
- 159 LMMC is tough and rubbery; what might be the
- 160 What causes the soft rind/soft surface defect
- 161 What causes soft body defect in LMMC?
- 162 How may the development of free oil during
melting be controlled?
- 163 How can the browning rate of LMMC be
- Cheeses ripened in brine
- 164 Introduction
- 165 What causes early and late gas blowing in
- 166 What causes blowing of the white-brined cheese
- 167 How may mouldiness in white-brined cheese be
- 168 What causes softening of the cheese body in
- 169 Why is the brine surrounding my white-brined
- Acid and acid/heat-coagulated
- 170 Introduction
- 171 How may wheying off (spontaneous syneresis) in
Quarg be avoided?
- 172 Why is Quarg dry and grainy?
- 173 How may over-acid and bitter flavour defects
in Quarg be avoided?
- 174 How may the viscosity of Cream cheese be
- 175 Free oil forms in Cream cheese at the outlet
of the heat exchanger. How can this problem be resolved?
- 176 Why is the coagulum of Cottage cheese weak
with poor syneresis?
- 177 What is agglutination of starter bacteria and
how do I avoid sludge formation?
- 178 How do I solve the 'floating curd' defect in
- 179 Why are the curd particles for Cottage cheese
slick and slimy?
- 180 Why is there whey separation from my Cottage
cheese after packaging?
- 181 What strategies should be adopted to improve
the yield of Cottage cheese?
- 182 What are the likely causes of surface
discoloration, off-flavours and bitterness in Cottage
- 183 How may the shelf-life of Cottage cheese be
- 184 What are harsh and green flavour defects in
- 185 How may the mouthfeel of Queso Blanco be
- 186 What approaches may be used to control the
- Cheese as a food ingredient
- 187 Introduction
- 188 How may the browning of heated cheese be
- Processed cheese
- 189 Introduction: what is processed cheese?
- 190 Why does processed cheese sometimes have a
gummy pudding-like texture and oil-off?
- 191 Why does processed cheese sometimes have a
- 192 How is the firmness and spreadability of
processed cheese controlled?
- 193 Why does processed cheese have a dry, short,
- 194 Why does processed cheese have a soft,
inelastic, adhesive and spreadable texture?
- 195 What causes crystals in processed cheese and
how can this problem be minimised?
- Cheese-like products
- 196 Introduction: what are analogue cheeses?
- 197 What is enzyme-modified cheese?