Saving the Ranch: Conservation Easement Design in the American West by Anthony Anella, John B. Wright, photographs by Edward Ranney (Island Press) (Hardcover) Conservation easement design ranges from protecting the entire ranch to creating a limited, protective development. (This is explained in more detail in the following chapters.) In all cases, conservation easement design is based on protecting ranchland as a natural resource. "Success" is the long-term stewardship of the earth, which translates into the appreciation of land value over time. It honors one of America's great strengthsprivate property rightswhile respecting the rights of future generations.
Conservation easement design recognizes that some land is suitable for conservation and some is more appropriate for residential development. Conventional development rarely makes this distinction. It treats all land the same without regard to the destruction of ranches, watersheds, and wildlife habitats. Conservation easement design is site-specific and promotes the stewardship of natural resources.
What truly defines conservation easement design is love for the landnot a concept that "pencils out" at first glance. It should be said plainly: The main reason people place a conservation easement on a ranch comes from the heart. They do it because they can't bear the thought of the place being covered with houses.
Ranchers who want to get as much money as possible out of the land should probably sub-divide their place into "ranchettes." This is the conventional approach to the development of rural land. There is a much larger market of people who can afford to buy twenty to thirty acres at $19,900 than people who can afford to pay for a carefully designed protective development. However, you get what you pay for. You also get what you sell for. Lots in protective developments often sell for more per acre than conventional lots. Always "run the numbers" and compare the trade-offs. But, if ranchers do not want to see their land completely subdivided, they should consider a conservation easement design.
Conservation easement design offers a way to counterbalance the economic forces that threat-en the existence of ranching as a viable way of life. It recognizes the contribution to steward-ship that ranchers make and allows them to capitalize on this contribution. It does this by reducing or eliminating the estate tax burden, and by creating more income possibilities through limited development, allowing a family to pay off debt while preserving the integrity of the land.
Conservation easement design is one of the last best chances for ranchers to maintain their way of life. But getting it done on the ground is what matters. The following chapters show how.
Nature and the City: Making Environmental Policy in Toronto and Los Angeles
by Gene Desfor, Roger Keil (Society, Environment, and Place: University of
Pollution of air, soil, and waterways has become a primary concern of urban environmental policy making, and over the past two decades there has emerged a new era of urban policy that links development with ecological issues. This book takes a new look at this application of "ecological modernization" to contemporary urban political-ecological struggles. It criticizes the dominant belief in the power of markets and experts to regulate environments to everyone's benefit, arguing instead that civil political action by local constituencies can influence the establishment of beneficial policies.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, more than half of all humans live in cities, making urban sustainability a major concern. Pollution of air, soil, and waterways has become a primary concern of urban environmental policy making, and over the past two decades there has emerged a new era of urban policy that links development with ecological issues, based on the notion that both nature and the economy can be enhanced through technological changes to production and consumption systems.
This book takes a new look at this application of "ecological modernization" to contemporary urban political-ecological struggles. Considering policy processes around land-use in urban watersheds and pollution of air and soil in two disparate North American "global cities," it criticizes the dominant belief in the power of markets and experts to regulate environments to everyone's benefit, arguing instead that civil political action by local constituenies can influence the establishment of beneficial policies. The book emphasizes `subaltern' environmental justice concerns as instrumental in shaping the policy process.
Looking back to the 1990swhen ecological modernization began to emerge as a dominant approach to environmental policy and theoryDesfor and Keil examine four case studies: restoration of the Don River in Toronto, cleanup of contaminated soil in Toronto, regeneration of the Los Angeles River, and air pollution reduction in Los Angeles. In each case, they show that local constituencies can develop political strategies that create alternatives to ecological modernization. When environmental policies appear to have been produced through solely technical exercises, they warn, one must be suspicious about the removal of contention from the process.
In the face of economic and environmental processes that have been increasingly influenced by neo-liberalism and globalization, Desfor and Keil's analysis posits that continuing modernization of industrial capitalist societies entails a measure of deliberate change to societal relationships with nature in cities. Their book shows that environmental policies are about much more than green capitalism or the technical mastery of problems; they are about how future urban generations live their lives with sustainability and justice.
Woodlands In Crisis: A Legacy Of Lost Biodiversity On The Colorado Plateau by Gary Paul Nabhan, Marcelle Coder, Susan J. Smith, Zsuzsi I. Kovacs (Biby Research Center Occasional Papers No. 2: University of Arizona Press) In recent years, the West has suffered from unprecedented stand-replacing wildfires, and the government has invested more money in preventative forest thinning than ever before. This forest crisis has led to much controversy over the Healthy Forests legislation passed by Congress in 2003. On the Colorado Plateau, it has also spurred heated debates regarding the degree to which thinning can truly serve to restore wooded habitats and what reference conditions and restoration goals are needed to guide such plans. This book offers a primer for understanding how diverse land-use histories have impacted the health of pine-dominated ecosystems in the West and points to measures for better managing them in the future. It draws on a systematic review of the historic effects of land use and climate on ecosystem health, biodiversity, and non-timber forest products in four specific landscapes on the Colorado Plateau--the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, the Chuska Mountains in Arizona, Mesa Verde in Colorado, and the San Francisco Volcanic Shield in Arizona--all of which have long histories of human occupation and use of forest products. The authors evaluate the degree to which livestock grazing and other cultural land uses have historically reduced the frequency, severity and areal extent of fires, the species richness of understory plants, and the availability of non-timber forest products formerly harvested by Native, Hispanic and Anglo American communities. By examining the many natural and cultural influences upon biodiversity and ecosystem health, a much more robust and site-specific understanding of each place is possible. With improved and localized information, management decisions can be guided by a deeper and broader understanding of reference conditions, current threats, and goals for management and restoration. Now that there is new support for forest management, this book considers how that support can be used not merely to reduce the frequency of property-damaging fires over the short-term, but to restore the overall health and diversity of our woodlands.
Directory 2003: The Guide to Worldwide Environmental Organizations by
National Wildlife Federation (Island Press) For the past
47 years, the National Wildlife Federation Conservation Directory has served as
the preeminent guide to the conservation community for a broad range of
audiences. Now, for the first time, Island Press is joining with the National
Wildlife Federation to produce and distribute this key reference. The
authoritative sourcebook of 2,800 organizations and agencies concerned with
natural-resource use and management.
2003 edition is the most comprehensive listing of conservation and environmental
organizations yet published, with nearly 4,000 entries, including listings of:
-state, provincial, and federal agencies in the United States and Canada -U.S.
Congress members, including committees and subcommittees -national and
international governmental organizations -U.S., Canadian, and international
non-governmental organizations -colleges and universities with conservation
programs -parks, refuges, and other protected areas -conservation information
Each entry contains detailed contact information including names, addresses, and telephone and fax numbers; also included are selected e-mail and internet addresses, descriptions of program areas, senior staff by name and responsibility, principal publications, and more. Entries are categorized by organization type and state or country, and indexed alphabetically and by subject, on subjects ranging from acid rain to zoology. Each person listed in the directory is also indexed alphabetically.
The National Wildlife Federation is the country's largest member-supported conservation group, with over four million members. Its stated mission is to educate, inspire, and assist individuals and organizations of diverse cultures to conserve wildlife and other natural resources, and to protect the Earth's environment in order to achieve a peaceful, equitable, and sustainable future. NWF is the publisher of Ranger Rick, National Wildlife, and International Wildlife magazines, as well as producer--through its multimedia arm, National Wildlife Productions, Inc.--of film and television programs devoted to the environment.
Environment, Construction and Sustainable Development: The Environmental Impact of Construction Volume 1; Environment, Construction and Sustainable Development: Sustainable Civil Engineering Volume 2 edited by T. Carpenter (two volumes sold as one) (Wiley) is an important contribution to the worldwide debate on sustainable development and the first to focus comprehensively on construction. It takes note of historical precedents and analyses "future prospects in the light of inequitable use of resources end increasing demographic and socio-economic problems.
Volume 1 gives a detailed treatment of built development in a variety of geographical situations. Volume 2 explains further how each field of civil engineering can be related directly to natural resources and the environment. The two volumes are split into four parts dealing with effects of construction on resources, describing examples of these themes, identifying appropriate practical construction solutions and recognizing the economic and political realities that are faced in their implementation. It gives new emphasis to established solutions in recurrent situations and an integrated analysis of new options available for tackling problems in sustainable development.
This book will appeal to students and post-graduates in geography or civil engineering, and professionals in land use, transportation planning and earth and environmental sciences.
Construction is as old as civilization. Buildings, roads, bridges, aqueducts and dams have enabled mankind to thrive in numbers and to a standard not possible in less organized communities. However burgeoning populations and the extravagant lifestyles of the most successful people threaten the natural resources of the earth.
`The environment', representing both the existence of these resources and their fragile quality, is a concept brought to public attention only in the last 30 years. This is not to say that environmental issues were previously ignored. Cultivators - both settled and nomadic - practiced soil conservation; engineers constructed highways and aqueducts to suit the landscape as well as to serve its development; and building materials, like brick or stone, were chosen to suit local circumstances rather than just to exploit them. But the thirst of growing communities, first for water and fertile land space, then for mineral resources and most recently for easily exploitable but nonrenewable fossil fuels, have resulted in unprecedentedly rapid resource depletion. This forebodes shortages which will make civilized life support systems precarious for future generations; even man-made infrastructure may be rendered redundant or inadequate unless it is adapted to suit new development strategies and controls.
The role of construction in sustainable development involves a dilemma. Civil engineering, which is the design and implementation of construction, was defined as harnessing the great forces of nature for the service of mankind; but more people and their demand for greater material advantage use more resources than nature can continue to supply.
Opposition has arisen to construction, as it has to many forms of human activity, where it is seen either as building development unnecessarily grabbing land or other scarce resources or as a supporting element for new ventures or processes that will pollute the environment. Objection emanates most directly from
those who stand to suffer - for example, displaced by a dam project or losing the amenity of quiet countryside where a new trunk highway is constructed. They may be joined by official or unofficial guardians of global resources. Support for construction projects comes from those who plan water supplies, electric power or transport systems to satisfy the demands of increasing populations and developing economies.
Planners have to devise optimum solutions and persuade all parties to accept them. Civil engineers have to provide structures that will most effectively and sustainably perform essential functions. In conjunction with regulatory and fiscal measures, the consequent pattern of the built environment must encourage systems of land use, energy production and movement of people and goods that can be justified in the long term.
In preparing this book we looked back over the last 100 years - further where the precedents of ancient construction techniques and achievements still apply. We then attempted to look forward over an equal period, well beyond the relatively short planning periods that are commonly practicable in political planning processes. To the extensive literature of the last two decades concerning threats to regional and global environments, we have endeavored to add a comprehensive review of the part played by construction - in causing current situations or in improving them. These two volumes defend those measures necessary to enhance equitably the lot of present and future populations; they identify needs for modifications or fundamental changes where construction is extravagant in the use of resources; and they determine how structures can best be planned to influence the sustainable pursuit of human aspirations.
Rural Planning and Management edited by Joe Morris, Alison Bailey, R. Kerry Turner (Managing the Environment for Sustainable Development Series: Edward Elgar) Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the importance of the rural sector in integrated sustainable development strategies. This timely volume presents a selection of writings which explore the key issues in the debate on the management of the rural environment for sustainable development.
Although there are considerable differences in context between developed, transitional and developing countries, the volume identifies common themes in the search for sustainable livelihoods, vibrant communities, environmental protection and the wise use of natural resources. It looks at the challenges of sustainable rural development, relevant concepts, and approaches and policy responses. The collection contains papers on topical rural issues such as sustainable agriculture, forestry, tourism and protected area policy. It demonstrates that, while there is convergence on the approaches to sustainable development, notably the emphasis on market mechanisms, institution building and participation, local solutions need to be found.37 articles, dating from 1990 to 2000: Contributors include: D.G.R. Belshaw, J. Bryden, F. Ellis, I. Hodge,
Liability for Damage to Public Natural Resources: Standing, Damage and Damage Assessment by Edward H.P. Brans (Kluwer Law) focuses on liability for damage to those natural resources that are of interest to the public and are protected by national, European or international law. It provides an overview of the law of the United States and of certain EU Member States on the recovery of damages for injury to natural resources. The international civil liability conventions that cover environmental harm and the recently published European Commission's White Paper on environmental liability are also discussed. The on-going development in various international forums of treaties or protocols dealing with liability for environmental damage are analyzed, as are the principles developed by the UNEP Working Group established in response to the 1990 Gulf War to advise the UNCC on claims for damage to natural resources.
Liability for Damage to Public Natural Resources addresses assessment and valuation issues, the issue of standing in cases of injury to (un)owned natural resources, and the determination of ways to repair, restore and compensate for natural resource injuries and the associated loss of ecological and human services. It also explains why such a difference exists between the US and most European jurisdictions and inter-national liability conventions as to the recovery of damages for injury to natural resources. [Review pending]
Contents: Series Editors' Preface. Preface and Acknowledgements. List of Abbreviations. 1. Introduction. 2. Defining Natural Resource Damage. 3. Damage to Unowned Natural Resources. Standing and Cause of Action. 4. Statutory Liability for Damage to Natural Resources in the United States of America. 5. White Paper of the European Commission on Environmental Liability. 6. Recovery of Damages for Injury to Natural Resources under the Law of Some EU Member States (and Canada). 7. International Civil Liability for Damage to Natural Resources. 8. Concluding Remarks. Bibliography. Table of Cases. Index.
Knowledge, Power, and Participation in Environmental Policy Analysis: Policy Studies Review Annual by Matthijs Hisschemoller, Rob Hoppe, William N. Dunn, Jerry R. Ravetz (Policy Studies Review Annual, 12: Transaction Publishers) Knowledge, Power, and Participation in Environmental Policy Analysis is designed to probe the implications of the practical dilemmas and research perspectives. Accordingly, this issue does not pretend to offer a "stateof‑the‑art" tour of a well‑established field. The editors' aim is rather to show how scholars working in different disciplinary fields, research traditions, societies, and policy domains offer significant insights into the process and products of environmental policy analysis.
Part I starts to introduce the problem as it has been stated by many policy scientists in past decades, as a conflict between the power of expertise and (lack of) public participation. Fischer, building upon earlier work, shows historically how the institutionalization of increasingly complex environmental problems has led to a conflict between technocracy and democracy. The proposed remedy is to reintroduce participation. In support of this claim Fischer points to the Danish experience with the Consensus Conference as a tool for environmental policymaking. Like Fischer, Hisschemoller and Hoppe argue for participation in order to effectively address complex environmental problems. But rather than taking a dichotomic perspective (technocracy versus democracy), they argue that not all forms of participation are equally effective for problem structuring, e.g., to avoid a bias in the information for making policy decisions. A primary task for policy analysis is to assist in making problem structuring in public policy possible. Woodhouse and Nieusma also focus on highlighting specific conditions for addressing the problem of bias in environmental policy, thereby rejecting what they refer to as the cynical theory of the power of expertise. They explore the concept of democratic expertise, which requires counteracting bias by moving from the idea of neutrality to thoughtful partisanship, working disproportionately to assist havenots in understanding and making their case; and assisting all partisans in coping with uncertainties. Guston, in the fourth contribution to this block, takes a somewhat different perspective. He, too, focuses on guidelines for policy science interaction. Taking Jasanoff's concept of "serviceable truth" as a starting point, he explores opportunities for a better matching of science production and decision making by evaluating decision rules characteristic for both processes. His typology of decision rules shows some resemblance with the Hisschemoller/Hoppe typology. But unlike Fischer, Hisschemollerl Hoppe, and Woodhouse/Nieusma, who stress the primacy of the political, Guston poses the problem as one of bridging "two cultures." He distinguishes strategies that are biased toward either one of the two cultures, science or politics, and strategies that are able to take the particularities of both science and politics into account. These "mixed" strategies Guston considers most fit to produce serviceable truths. Despite differences in scope and focus, the four contributions in this block have as their common ground that policy‑science interaction is analyzed from a social constructivist position. Boundaries between the scientific and the political are considered fluid, at times even absent. The task of the policy sciences in analyzing boundary work relates to effectively addressing biases. It is the nature of the biases at stake where these contributions come to slightly different conclusions.
Part II highlights the challenge posed for knowledge, power, and participation by environmental problems that occur at transnational levels, the regional, the global, and the European level respectively. Botts et al. present what can be labeled a success story. They show how cooperation between grassroots movements, scientists, and regional authorities in both the United States and Canada laid the foundations for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The case study also shows how the problem faced by the regime gradually shifted from relatively structured to relatively unstructured, because of increasing disagreement and uncertainty among the stakeholders and experts involved, and how the regime attempts to adjust to this development. Gupta compares three international environmental regimes, LRTAP on transboundary air pollution, the Montreal Protocol on protecting the ozone layer and the Global Climate Change Convention. She points out under what conditions scientific knowledge facilitated regime formation and in which way knowledge management has been incorporated in the three treaties. Taking into account the specific position of developing countries, Gupta identifies an area of knowledge which she considers to be underused in international negotiations: knowledge on legal and ethical principles. Knowledge use from this field could encourage developing countries to more effectively engage in international environmental negotiations. Liberatore addresses the development of climate change policy by the European Union and points out how the EU contributes to the production and use of scientific knowledge by research programming. Her contribution highlights the dynamics of knowledge demand and use as the climate issue "climbed" the political agenda. Research, initially marginal from an EU perspective, became pivotal for addressing new information needs. A specific challenge for the EU as a supranational government is to keep on track with the diversity of national practices and stakeholder perceptions throughout the Union. The contributions in this block all focus on the kind of environmental problems and institutions that tend to be remote to citizens and policy stakeholders. Yet, they seem to have something to say with respect to knowledge, power, and participation: international environmental regimes are in continuous need for public participation. The value of participation is not limited to legitimizing policy regimes, neither does it end with its "early warning function" as temporally ordered conceptual frameworks or "stage models" of policymaking suggest. Whether the environmental regimes and their supporting knowledge systems are able to work at all is dependent on at least some amount of effective interaction with (local) parties.
Part III deals with environmental problems that are, potentially, closest to the public at large because of their implications for food safety. Jelsma analyzes the regulation of the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Netherlands. The case tends to confirm the hypothesis that major power differences impose a barrier on opportunities for frame reflection. Taylor addresses European Commission regulation with respect to the admission of Novartis' GM maize to the European market. He finds that EU decision rules allow for making a decision without taking into account the majority view of the EU Parliament, the member states, and its consumers. The commission based its decision on the advice by closed scientific committees and, in the background, U.S. commercial pressure. Taylor points to the dominant approach to environmental risk in GMO policymaking, which is not open for suggestions of risk avoidance. Jasanoff describes her observations related to the crisis in the UK following the outbreak of mad cow disease (BSE) in 1996. She notices a crisis of legitimacy of the UK system of health and safety management control by expertise, in her own words: a mismatch between what governmental institutions were supposed to do for the public and what they actually did. She refers to this phenomenon as "civic dislocation." Market parties took over responsibilities that are widely considered political. The contributions in this block show that in cases of scientific and political uncertainty participation may be ineffective, even when the issues at stake are potentially very close to the public at large, or perhaps because of that very proximity. Taken together, they produce a gloomy picture of what may happen if the interaction between decision makers and interested patties fails to turn into a productive dialogue. As Jelsma puts it: "The powerful can afford not to learn." Jasanoff takes the issue one step further: What becomes of power in the absence of the "right" knowledge? Expert knowledge alone is inadequate, as the main bottleneck seems to be the policy system's failure to admit that the problem of uncertainty is as much about politics and values as it is about scientific knowledge and specialized expertise. As an inference, one may interpret the avoidance of interaction with others by a closed policy‑science network not so much as a reflection of its power but rather as a lack of political power in the absence of a political vision on how to deal with uncertainty.
Part IV focuses on the role of the citizen vis‑a‑vis environmental policy. If environmental policies are, to a certain extent, in need of participation in order to make policies work or for the invention of workable policies, then citizens must be willing and able to participate in policymaking and cooperate in implementing environmental choices. Simoes discusses some actual findings about public attitudes on global environmental issues in developing countries, and their implications for Ingelhart's notion of post‑materialist values. Comparative research indicates that Brazil and Mexico show a remarkable environmental awareness, as compared to some industrialized countries. These findings may be interpreted as to reject Ingelhart's proposition. Simoes however points to weaknesses in the research approach. Critical issues for understanding peoples' attitudes are related to the degree of remoteness of environmental issues and to (the lack of) people's knowledge of the relation between attitudes and behavioral intentions. Midden and Meijnders present a framework for understanding consumers' willingness to act. Numerous research findings support a modified version of the "social dilemma" hypothesis, according to which people's motives are explained by greed, efficiency, and equity. Efficiency relates to knowledge and problem awareness (or their absence). Equity relates to a fair distribution of costs and benefits. Peoples' willingness to act may be enhanced by reduction of uncertainty based on scientific research and by increasing personal relevance of environmental change. Basically, both contributions in this block raise the issue of what determines the limitations to public participation. These limitations may be defined in many ways, but they seem somehow related to (lack of) power and knowledge in at least two ways: On the one hand, the dominant framing of an environmental issue may decrease personal relevance and knowledge, which may discourage participation. On the other hand, peoples' environmental choices rnay be negatively affected by scientific uncertainty, which is a powerful driving force of any knowledge system.
Part V explores opportunities for, and barriers to, public participation in evaluating the usefulness of science. The increasing attention for participatory approaches in integrated environmental assessment underlies the notion that practical knowledge from stakeholders and interested citizens is increasingly relevant for environmental policymaking and should therefore play a role in the evaluation of environmental models. Van der Sluijs addresses the question of what conditions integrated assessment models should meet in order to be of better use in participatory processes. The contribution draws on experiences in the ULYSSES project (Urban Lifestyles, Sustainability, and Integrated Environmental Assessment), which included focus group experiments in seven European cities. He finds that the current generation of models is not well suited for participatory environmental assessment, since these models do not allow for problem structuring by confronting divergent values and views of participants. Van der Sluijs suggests developing a new generation of integrated assessment models that takes the actual stakeholders as a starting point rather than theoretical categories and culturally determined value orientations. The contribution by Yearly, Forester, and Baily draws on data from a series of group sessions with stakeholders in Sheffield (UK) to analyze the public's understandings of a locally used air quality model and its role in local environmental policy. They discuss the idea of extended peer review as a means for citizen participation in quality assurance for science. The findings tend, at least generally, to support the notion of extended peer review. However, the authors notice that the focus groups did not so much evaluate the model's scientific value but showed greater interest in its political implications, especially its potential for solving the local issues they considered relevant. Hence, extended peer review may turn out to be not at all the same as quality assurance for science. Despite their differences, the two contributions seem to have some common implications for what can be expected of participatory integrated assessment. First, participatory exercises about models (and other scientific input) tend to focus on (the relevancy of) the problems these scientific models appear to address and, therefore, provide an often complex mixture of facts and values. Hence, the often made assertion that in such confrontations modelers should make their value orientation explicit does not make much sense, since values cannot be dealt with in the abstract. Secondly, both contributions create the impression of a very limited value of evaluating models in participatory exercises, especially if the participatory processes are not meant to make the models fit with the priority problems as considered by stakeholders.
Part VI focuses on research programming and its implications for scientists. It addresses the question of whether scientists still have opportunities to do the research they want without being interrupted or disturbed by policy and stakeholder involvement. It also looks into future prospects. Shove and Redclift ask: If policy problems are indeed driving scientific research and the production of expert knowledge, then exactly how does this happen? In a comparative study of social science research programs in six countries they observe three kinds of research environments. They conclude that each research environment shapes the opportunities for social science research in a different way, simultaneously creating both boundaries and opportunities. The state of environmental research programming is in flux, which is reflected in the shifting meaning and connotations of concepts such as "fundamental" or "applied" research. Rip's contribution takes a future‑oriented perspective. Starting with the evolution from "science as the endless frontier" (the sixties) to "strategic research programming" (nineties) he develops five potential models for future research programming and the role of peer review. Both Shove/Redclift and Rip foresee that the traditional distinction between "fundamental" and "applied" research tends to be replaced by others. They also show that the relationship between knowledge and power is far more complicated than in the naive view that the two are in conflict. What are worth researching are the systems of meaning, quality control, and reward that have an impact on both research and policy.
Part VII is about different aspirations for the policy sciences. It has the mark of this volume's editors. Dunn, building on earlier work in the utilization of knowledge tradition, sets out to improve methodologies for articulating stakeholder assumptions and apply these to environmental policy. He takes issue with post‑modern relativism in science and its farreaching implications for environmental policy: If ill‑structured problems give rise to an infinite number of stakeholder views that are equally legitimate, policy might as well take none of them into account. His contribution builds on the aspiration as old as the policy sciences themselves (Myrdal, Lazersfeld, Lasswell): to provide sound science in support of both policy and participation. Hisschemoller, Groenewegen, Hoppe, and Midden analyze how Dutch styles of environmental policymaking affect the knowledge system and scientists' abilities to communicate their science and thereby interact with non‑scientists. They take issue with the Dutch tradition of consensus politics by informal policyscience networks. These networks tend to suppress political debate and competition between knowledge claims. Their contribution reflects the aspiration to enhance new forms of policymaking in modern democracies. Ravetz's contribution provides an attempt to synthesize meta‑theories related to the knowledge, power, and participation nexus, i.e., cultural theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1983), the structure of policy problems (Hisschemoller and Hoppe, this volume) and post‑normal science (Funtowicz and Ravetz,1992). Ravetz highlights the social structure of environmental risk. He points to parameters that tend to remain relatively stable over time. This contribution reflects the sociological aspiration to understand the institutional arrangements that shape the structure of decision making rather than to narrow down to the manipulable variables that are usually addressed by policy scientists.No doubt, one can think of many more aspirations for the policy sciences that could not be addressed in this volume and even less in its closing part. For sure, it is a challenge for the policy sciences to date to continue and broaden the joint reflections on issues related to knowledge, power, and participation in environmental policy. Such effort might contribute to the conception of innovative, interdisciplinary, and politically credible institutions where experts, policymakers, and interested citizens cope with uncertainty, value conflicts, interdisciplinarity, and political choice.
Terrestrial Global Productivity by Jacques Roy, Harold A. Mooney and Bernard Saugier (A Volume in the Physiological Ecology Series: Academic Press) is likely to become a major resource for the evaluation of environmental policy and science. As the global climate changes; there are concomitant changes in global biological productivity. The Earth climate system and the functioning of the biosphere interact strongly. A change in one affects the other and feedback mechanisms occur. These interactions are now influenced by human activities at an unprecedented scale, both in their rate and in their geographical extent. Global change is now a fact: atmospheric C02 concentration has increased by nearly 30% since 1750, the Earth's surface has warmed by 0.6C during the twentieth century, and there is an increasing pressure for converting natural vegetation to agricultural land and pastures. This trend is not likely to reverse in the next decades, but we have large uncertainties in predicting the magnitudes of these changes. Productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, a major integrative process between living organisms and the atmosphere, is strongly affected by climate and land use and feeds back on the climate mainly through the C02 and H20 cycles.
In the early 1970s the International Biological Programme (IBP) provided a wealth of information on the biological basis of productivity in different environments. However, global changes were not an issue at that time, remote‑sensing research was not developed enough to extrapolate local measurements to larger areas, and global productivity models were in their infancy. A lot has happened since the inception of the IBP and it is now time to assess our current state of knowledge and research and to identify gaps in knowledge and critical issues that need to be addressed. In this volume we update and synthesize our current knowledge on global primary productivity, its current rate at the planetary level, and how it varies among biomes, and, where possible, make predictions of future productive capacities according to scenarios of human impacts.
Terrestrial Global Productivity is comprised of three major sections. The first section is a review of the processes that operate globally to influence productivity - these are the initial conditions of any model of primary productivity. The second section is comprised of chapters that assess the contribution of particular ecosystems to global productivity. The final major section contains chapters of a synthetic nature that describe attempts to model global productivity. This book should appeal to both ecologists and environmental scientists.
Terrestrial Global Productivity is devoted to the assessment of terrestrial Net Primary Productivity ("the total amount of energy acquired by green plants during photosynthesis, minus the energy lost through respiration").
Perverse Subsidies: How Misused Tax Dollars Harm the Environment and the Economy by Norman Myers and Jennifer Kent (Island Press) leading environmental analyst Norman Myers, along with co‑author Jennifer Kent, offers a comprehensive view of subsidies worldwide with a particular focus on the extent, causes, and consequences of those subsidies that can be characterized as "perverse"‑those that, rather than helping society achieve desired goals, work in the opposite direction, causing damage to both our economies and our environments. Perverse Subsidies will become the standard reference on subsidies and their effects for government reform advocates, policy analysts, and environmentalists, as well as for scholars and students interested in interactions between policy‑making and environmental issues. Given the free-for-all that the current Republican adminstration seems to regard our natural resources both the volumes provide clear counterarguments to our irresponsible use of the natural world.
Promise: Capitalism, Politics, and the Fate of the Federal Lands by
Richard W. Behan (Island Press) Subsidized liquidation of old-growth forests.
Grazing rights leased at below‑market rates. Mineral resources extracted
with trifling royalty payments, or none at all. Water developments built with
These and other actions serve private interests extremely
well but inflict massive costs on society at large. They are but the most
visible signs of the fundamental flaws in the current system of federal lands
management. In Plundered
Promise, leading resource management scholar Richard W. Behan presents a
thought‑provoking history and analysis of public lands management in the
United States, as he describes how we arrived at the current situation and
examines what we can do to rectify it.
Behan's provocative thesis is that American political and
economic institutions have overshot their historic roles, and rather than
responding to public needs, have drawn society in their service. He ultimately
focuses on the power of federal "iron triangles," and in particular
the influence of the one nonpublic institution --"the unfettered and
immortal institution of the American corporation"--that he holds
responsible for the ongoing devastation of the public lands. Behan stresses the
urgent need for reform and presents a radical proposal for getting there: The
devolution of authority over public lands to "localized
constituencies," and the reining in of corporations.. For anyone interested
in the preservation of U.S. public lands
This unique combination of social criticism, institutional
analysis, history, and political science is guided by a strong moral compass
bolstered by rigorous scholarship. Plundered
Promise is must reading for anyone interested in the past or future of
our public lands, or in the influence of contemporary politics and capitalism.
Land and Allegiance in Revolutionary Georgia by Leslie Hall (Georgia) This history of the American Revolution in Georgia offers a thorough examination of how landownership issues complicated and challenged colonists' loyalties. Despite underdevelopment and isolation, eighteenth-century Georgia was an alluring place, for it held out to settlers of all social classes the prospect of affordable land--and the status that went with ownership.
Then came the Revolution and its many threats to the orderly systems by which property was acquired and protected. As rebel and royal leaders vied for the support of Georgia's citizens, says Leslie Hall, allegiance became a prime commodity, with property and the preservation of owners' rights the requisite currency for securing it.
As Hall shows, however, the war's progress in Georgia was indeterminate; in fact, Georgia was the only colony in which British civil government was reestablished during the war. In the face of continued uncertainties--plundering, confiscation, and evacuation--many landowners' desires for a strong, consistent civil authority ultimately transcended whatever political leanings they might have had. The historical irony here, Hall's study shows, is that the most successful regime of Georgia's Revolutionary period was arguably that of royalist governor James Wright. Land and Allegiance in Revolutionary Georgia is a revealing study of the self-interest and practical motivations in competition with a period's idealism and rhetoric.
One. Poor Settlers on the Southern Frontier: Trustee and Royal Georgia, 1733-1776
Two. Rebels Take Charge: Georgia State Government, 1776
Three. Things Fall Apart: Georgia State Government, 1777-1778
Four. Stalemate: British and Continental Forces in Georgia, 1779-1782
Five. Land and Allegiance: Royal and Rebel Governments Compete for Citizens' Support, 1781-1782
Six. Pillaged, Plundered, and Carried Off: The Laying Waste of Georgia, 1779-1782
Seven. Aftermath of the British Evacuation: A Second Crop of Violence
Environmental Restoration by William Throop (Humanity Books) Human interests, often in pursuit of commercial goals, increasingly encroach upon the natural environment. Mining, logging, and other pursuits that involve physical extraction from the land, as well as development, waste management, and pollution all take their toll. One argument often heard in support of activities that affect the natural environment is that of restoration: Once the land has served its commercial purpose, the natural space would be restored to its former state.
Environmental Restoration outlines philosophical perspectives on the rapidly growing practice of environmental restoration. Some argue that restoration should be a new paradigm for environmentalism; others maintain that it simply more of the human domination of nature that is at the heart of our current environmental problems. While it is clear that the environment can never really be restored to its pristine state once it has been disrupted, the question remains: Can restored natural spaces be considered truly natural, or are they humankind's own creations? The ongoing debate will help shape environmentalism in the twenty-first century.
This collection covers a range of issues about the goals of restoration, the values underlying these goals and means for achieving them, and current attitudes toward restoration. Articles are juxtaposed to highlight areas of controversy and the arguments in support of divergent views, and non-technical discussion of restoration projects place these issues in the context of current policy making and practice, making them accessible to students, environmental professionals, and lay persons alike. Contributors include Robin Attfield, Susan Power Bratton, Robert Elliot, WIlliam R. Jordan III, G. Stanley Kane, Eric Katz, Andrew Light, Stephanie Mills, Steve Packard, Holmes Rolston III, and other leading environmental philosophers and restorationists.
THE SACRED BALANCE: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature by David Suzuki with Amanda McConnell ($25.95, Cloth 272 pages, illustrations, notes, index) ISBN 1573921998)
Though a popular exposition geared to the general reader Suzuki's views are so well stated and comprehensive as to be worthy of general acclaim. The incredible and explosive changes in this century telecommunications, information access, population growth, consumption, transportation, global economics, technological power have given the human species the capacity to alter the physical and biological makeup of the planet on a geological scale. Despite finding the doorways to these new frontiers we seem to have further isolated ourselves from nature, blinding us to our biological requirements, and allowing global warming and pollution to proliferate.
We tacitly assume that all social programs, consumer products, and "the good life" are made possible by a healthy, growing economy and that humanity possesses the knowledge and the right to manage the vast range of Earth's "resources." Internationally acclaimed geneticist David Suzuki, a Canadian environmental hero who is featured on PBS, Discovery Channel, A&E, and CBC, reminds us in The Sacred Balance (Prometheus Books, 1998, Amherst, NY) of the undeniable fact that ahead of economic and political priorities, all people have fundamental needs that must be met in order to live a rich, full life. When those needs are not met, which is often the case in contemporary society-- we die prematurely; become ill; or live truncated, physically crippled lives.
Our needs, Suzuki says, fall into three basic categories biological, social, and spiritual. The Sacred Balance describes the degree to which these requirements lock us into the natural world and the ways in which our bodies are programmed to fulfill them. Suzuki clearly explains that our basic needs are met by our own and the planet's resources, yet our abusive and often greedy demands place our species in great danger.
WE bum fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, peat so rapidly that we are adding almost twice as much greenhouse gas to the atmosphere as the planet can absorb, literally changing the planet's climates. The consequences of continued warming will be "second only to all out nuclear war."
Suzuki explains, "As we approach the end of a millennium filled with incredible progress and destruction, the challenge is to define the real 'bottom line' upon which we must base whatever vision we have for humanity and its societies. I believe it resides in rediscovering our place in the natural world and making sacred those things that provide us with a rich, full life."
Question: With your background in science, how did you get involved with the media?
David Suzuki: As a geneticist, I was concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the tremendous advances that were going on in my profession. I knew about the history of misuse of genetic ideas to promulgate misguided eugenics policies and, of course, the race purification ideas of Nazi Germany.
Molecular biology was providing profound insights that meant our manipulative powers would be enormous and the potential for good and harm were correspondingly great. So, in 1962, 1 began a secondary career as a broadcaster and journalist in order to raise a lot of these issues for the general public.
Question: How did you get involved in environmental issues if you were a geneticist?
Suzuki: I had always been interested in nature as a boy. I'd dreamed of being an entomologist or ichthyologist but in college, genetics seduced me. Nevertheless, I retained my love of nature and the outdoors.
In 1962, Rachel Carson published her seminal work, Silent Spring, and like millions of people I began to see the enormous ecological repercussions of science and technology. Once I began my broadcasting career, it soon became obvious that people were interested in the area where science and technology intersect with people's daily lives. And of course, the environment became the most obvious place were human activity was creating enormous problems. So it drew me in and I ended up spending all of my time on this area.
Question: How do we know the environmental crisis is serious;
Suzuki: People often think that "environmentalists" form groups like Greenpeace and NRDC are the ones who are sounding the alarm about environmental problems, but in fact, it's the leading ecologists of the world Paul Ehrlich, E.O. Wilson, and Peter Raven. Many other scientists like Nobel laureates Sherwood Rowland and Henry Kendall, have also been raising the alarm.
In 1992, more than half of the living Nobel prizewinners and 1,600 other senior scientists from 71 countries released a document called "World Scientists Warning to Humanity" in which they stated that we are on a collision course with the life support systems of the planet and may have as little as ten years to turn things around.
And there has been a similar document released focused on global warming. As a group, scientists tend to be very cautious about the kinds of public pronouncements they make, so we ought to take this warning seriously. Too often industry and the media tend to portray the warnings as coming from fuzzy headed do-gooders, ecoterrorists, neoluddies or simply people interested in alarming the public to raise more money. Nothing could be further from the truth top scientists are telling us we have to confront an ecological catastrophe.
Question: What are the dimensions of the problems?
Suzuki: We are adding almost twice as much greenhouse gas to the atmosphere as the planet can absorb and so it is accumulating and creating what scientists now acknowledge is a human induced warming. The consequences of continued warming will be "second only to all out nuclear war" in the opinion of the Canadian All Party Standing Committee on the Environment.
We are losing topsoil at the rate of some 24 billion tons a year. This is the equivalent of the entire wheat growing capacity of Australia. At the same time, global population continues to increase at the rate of some quarter of a million people per day!
Species are being lost at a conservatively estimated rate of more than 50,000 a year, a reflection of the catastrophic loss of habitat. More than two thirds of the global forests have been invaded and will be lost in the next thirty years. We are at a crucial point when all decisions on whether and how much ancient forest will survive will be made. All the great gathering, of wild diversity --forests, coral reefs, estuariesm wetlands, grasslands, etc. --are under assault. Toxic pollutants are pervasive and if hormone mimic are as potent and pervasive as many scientists think, the long-term ramifications will be immense. These are just a few of the immediate issues we confront.
Question: But can't science and technology solve the problems?
Suzuki: Every technology, however beneficial, also has costs. We don't get anything for nothing. We can't go on assuming that we will take the benefits of technologies, worry about their long-term costs later and then try to design another technology to deal with the problem. It can't go on indefinitely like that. A major problem is that while scientists are very good at description (that's why their warnings about problems should be paid attention to), their knowledge base is still so minuscule, they have very little capacity to prescribe solutions. The best we can do is find ways to manage human behavior and activity so that nature can be given the opportunity to replenish and restore itself.
Question: But how can we afford a clean environment without a strong, growing economy?
Suzuki: We act as if the economy is what powers the world and must be maintained at all costs. The environment is seen as a subset of human priorities, subsumed by the economy. Of course this is a complete inversion of reality. Everything that we use, that keeps us alive, comes from the earth, not the other way around. If we don't have a vibrant, healthy environment, we don't live. We have to stop trying to shoehorn nature into human economic, political, and social priorities.
Question: But doesn't everyone want more material things?
Suzuki: It is true that the developing world has every right to demand the quality of life that we have. But if they follow the same path we do, they will doom the planet. Right now, we in the industrialized countries are a minority of 20% yet we consume over 80% of the planet's resources and produce well over 80% of its toxic pollutants. Most scientists today agree that we are already using up the planet's resources far beyond their capacity to be renewed. The onus is on the over consuming world to reduce its consumptive rate so that there will be more available for the developing world.
Question: Isn't overpopulation the real issue,
Suzuki: Population does impose limits on how much we can consume. But we in the rich countries are consuming and polluting far beyond the capacity of the planet to provide forever. The average Canadian or American consumes 20 times as much as the average Indian or Chinese and 100 times as much as the average Bangladeshi or Somalian. So in Indian or Somalian. equivalents, we are by far the overpopulated countries. The challenge we face is to reduce consumption in the industrialized nations while providing the latest, most efficient nonpolluting technologies to the developing nations and supporting the education and empowerment of women as the best contraceptive.
Question: Are you saying we have to go back to leading a primitive life?
Suzuki: Not at all. I think we have to put emphasis on quality, not quantity of life. On our deathbed, when we reflect on our life and what mattered most, I'm sure we will not think about stuff clothes, cars, computers, stereos, etc. We will remember family, friends, shared experiences, community. Those are not consumptive things, they are social and spiritual. We also have to decide what really are the nonnegotiable things that must be protected if we are to live and have a rich, full life. Those things must be the basis on which we build an economy, communities, and nations. Right now, we act as if this global economy is a real thing and demands that we submit to serving it.
Question: So what are those nonnegotiable things?
Suzuki: I divide them into three categories: those things that we need in order to live (biological); those things we need to meet our social needs, and those things we need as spiritual beings.
As animals, we have an absolute need for clean air, water, soil, energy, and a diversity of living things. Without them, we either die or suffer real physical problems.
We filter air with every breath we take and whatever we put into it will ultimately enter us and become part of us. So the notion that we can use the air as a dump for toxic chemicals is unacceptable.
We are inflated by water that makes up over 60% of our bodies by weight. Like air, that water comes to us from all parts of the planet and whatever we put into it will become part of us.
Every bit of the nutrition that will ultimately form our bodies was once living. And those plant and animal carcasses come from the soil. So whatever we put into the soil will ultimately end up incorporated as part of our bodies.
All of our energy ultimately comes from the sun and is captured for us by plants. When we liberate too much of that energy at once, we overwhelm the capacity of the earth to reabsorb the byproducts such as carbon dioxide and create problems.
Life itself in all its diverse forms is the factor that creates, replenishes, cleanses the air, water and soil and so must flourish to sustain them.
These are our basic biological needs.
The second tier of needs stem from the fact that we are social animals and as such, have profound social needs, the most fundamental of which is love. Without love, we become crippled physically and psychically. Love is best assured by strong families that are maintained by strong communities in which people can depend on employment, justice, equity, security, and dignity.
The third level of needs is spiritual. As creatures aware of our own mortality, traditional people have found comfort in that there are spirits and gods throughout their world. We have known that we are part of the web of life, related to all other living things.
Even though we must die, we were assured that we emerged from our surroundings and would return to it, thereby living on so long as nature persists. We need to rediscover our relatives, our dependence on them and our continued incarnations in different parts of the world.
I believe these are the fundamental needs that must form the foundation of our sustainable communities of the next millennium.
A highly acclaimed geneticist, David Suzuki has been compared to Carl Sagan in his crusade to inform the world about the major issues of science, ethics, and the environment. Like Sagan, Suzuki began trying to popularize science nearly 30 years ago, informing the public about the research that would change their lives.
Dr. Suzuki is the host of the popular Canadian television show The Nature of Things, a compelling program explaining the complexities of the natural sciences, broadcast weekly on numerous American stations. His PBS eight part series "The Secret of Life" won him praise in the United States and internationally, as did his special "Cyberspace," and his five part series, "The Brain," on the Discovery Channel. His show, Wildlife Mysteries, is seen daily on A&E.
Amanda McConnell, the coauthor of Suzuki's new book, The Sacred Balance, says that Suzuki has a "passionate drive to change the future, and reverse the drive toward global environmental collapse before it's too late."
A Japanese Canadian, Suzuki was Born in Vancouver in March of 1936 and was expelled from British Columbia at the end of World War 11. Suzuki was held as a political prisoner at 6 years of age as a result of the bitter tensions during the war. The incarceration had a lasting impact on Suzuki, who has spent his life fighting discrimination and trying to prove his worth through achievement in science and environmental activism. His commitment is unmatched and has made him a controversial hero among the Canadian people, and a recognized environmental activist worldwide.
Growing up in southern Ontario, Suzuki excelled in school, graduated with honors in biology from Amherst College in 1958, and eventually earned his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1961. He has been a professor at the University of British Columbia since 1963, and has taught at a number of other Canadian and American universities.
Suzuki has received many awards and honors for his work in environmental science, as well as for his radio and television programs and documentaries. He has received 12 honorary degrees from universities in the United States, Canada, and Australia. A recognized world leader in sustainable ecology, Suzuki has received the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Kalinga Prize for Science; the U.N. Environmental Medal, and the Global 500 from the U.N.'s Environment Program.
Through The Nature of Things, McConnell says, Suzuki illustrates the importance of science in our lives and warns us of the dangers posed to the environment by humanity's progress.
"Suzuki knows about the whirlwind, the chaos that looms when global warming continues unchecked, when the loss of the ozone layer, life's envelope on earth, exposes us to the full spectrum of the sun," McConnell notes.
Suzuki says, "Nature is the ultimate source of our inspiration, of our sense of belonging, of our hope that life will survive long after we are gone. In order to realize this hope, we must learn to regard the planet as sacred."
He was named the Canadian Bookselling Association's "Author of the Year" in 1990. Previous winners include Margaret Atwood and Farley Mowat.
Suzuki's book, An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, is the most widely used genetics text in the world.
He is the author of more than 20 books, including Genethics: The
Clash Between the New Genetics and
Human Values, The Wisdom of the Elders, Metamorphosis, and The Japan We Never Knew. He is the founder and chair of The David Suzuki Foundation.
"My great passion has been environmental issues and aboriginal people," Suzuki notes. "I've helped aboriginal groups in Australia, Malaysia, Japan, North and South America, and Papua, New Guinea."
Suzuki has fought to protect the environment in India, Brazil, Australia, and a number of other places in the world.
He lives with his wife, Dr. Tara Cullis, and his children in Vancouver.
INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION:
THE ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Jon Martin Trolldalen
World Foundation for Environment and Development (WFED), 1101 30th Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20007 Fax: 202-688-3771, in cooperation with the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and the National Institute for Dispute Resolution (NIDR).
$30.00, paper; 220 pages; Charts, Photos
Organizational protocols and policy studies can make dry reading. The promotion for this volume does not promise exciting reading, but it is packed with important information about how the United Nations has developed structures to deal with major environmental conflicts. It examines the role of the UN system in international conflicts and environmental problem areas relating to international river systems, coastal areas, forestry, biodiversity, and land resources. The book includes an examination of the role of various UN organizations in the field of conflict resolution, and is supplemented with case studies of many international conflicts and disputes relating to the natural resource systems under examination. The conflicts resolution process, well understood since the Camp David Accords, is summarized and adapted to multi-institutional and national conflict. Long term structural issues about over population and the inequity of distribution of value through transitional corporate development are not as well addressed as is the development of international law and treaty as the base for the parlay of resolution. This work is important for anyone who wants to understand the practical institutional measures available and developing for dealing with are stressed world resources. Foreword by Dr. Mohamed T. ElAshry (Chairman of the UNDP/ UNEP/World Bank Global Environment Facility).
The author, Jon Martin Trolldalen has served as Environmental Specialist at the WorldBank Director of WFED, and advisor to the Norwegian Secretariat for the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). He is currently Professor of Resource Geography at the University of Olso, and also serves on the Board of Directors for the Centre for Environmental Studies and Resource Management (CESAR) in Oslo. Dr. Trolidalen holds degrees in Engineering, Human Geography and Resource Geography.
'Balancing the need to protect the environment with improvement of human social and economic welfare can lead to conflicts of interest at local, national and international levels. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio in 1992 made some progress towards addressing the competing claims for protection and development of the world's natural resources. Now the challenge is for the United Nations to play a role in preventing and resolving international conflicts... If we fail to implement sustainable development approaches, it may have serious consequences for our security. This book makes a welcome contribution in an area of urgent importance. -Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, Chairperson, World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED).
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