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Review Essays of Academic, Professional & Technical Books in the Humanities & Sciences


Culture and Positioning as a Determinant of Strategy: Personality and the Business Organization by Tony Ellson (Palgrave Macmillan) This book offers an alternative to the traditional process of segmentation, targeting and positioning, highlighting some important implications for management and marketing practitioners as well as academics. Strategic positioning is the assertion of an organization's personality on decisions of how and where to compete. Operational positioning is an exercise in communication that concentrates on perception and image.

The book suggests that the principal drivers of strategic positioning play a fundamental role in the determination of strategy at all levels and play a pivotal role in differentiating competitors and generating competitive advantage. In particular, strategic positioning requires awareness and sometimes adjustment and changes in an organization's culture rather than just the cosmetic approach sometimes sought through promotion, advertising and communications plans.

Positioning has been described as something that takes place in a pro­spect's mind, a manipulation of consumer perceptions through a com­munications approach. This application of positioning uses the process of segmentation in order to gain a fuller understanding of target groups in the market as part of the informing process for a successful promotional approach. Day (1990) views pos­itioning at a strategic level as vision linking with competitive advantage, positioning at a tactical level as a concept linking product positioning with segmentation and targeting, and positioning at an operational level as a tool linking a brand to the customer through the use of com­munication. It is, from the strategic marketing viewpoint, a tactical or operational aspect of the marketing plan.

The book will try to identify the differences between strategic and operational positioning and attempt to define the role that each plays in the process of segmentation and targeting and the determination of marketing strategy.

Smith identifies differentiation as a promotional strategy to gain a market position and enhance a willingness to pay higher prices, and acknowledges that strategy is an integrated approach that engages the whole business. Whilst emotional enhancement of the product, or psychological means, are an intangible part of the product, strategy determination is a means of matching resources and skills, competencies to the changing environment. Superficial modification rather than real changes within the organization is necessary to make the connection between the organization and a target segment.

Marketing is not simply a manipulator of the customer, a teller and seller, an advertising promotion, a user of advertising and promotion, a manipulator of advertising, distribution and product branding, a purveyor of the short-term fix , or an inventor of a catchy new slogan. Satisfied customers, the rec­ognition of dynamic relationships between customer and supplier, the long-term strategic relationships with customers, and the long-term foundation for company prosperity where the customer is the focal point of a long-term strategic relationship or partnership are the underlying aims of marketing.

The book will examine the need for, and advantages of, strategic positioning matching reality rather than manipulating the mind of customers.

Strategic planning requires overall management decisions that influ­ence and facilitate integrated policies affecting every aspect and area of the business. The match between resources or distinctive competencies and external environment is fundamental to an organization achieving the purposes that it wishes to accomplish. Marketing should develop a range of facets and resources within the organization to win the hearts and minds of target markets rather than be confined by functional limi­tations of the role of marketing. This is a multi-faceted approach that relies more on social processes than the constraints of the limited borders of product, price, promotion and place. This research looks at strategic positioning as a reflection of the persona of the company. This might be reflected in a statement of mission or vision, it might reflect the culture of the organization, the `something' that you can sense, but cannot see or touch. Whatever this `something' might be, a company is dependent on the behaviours of the people who are perceived as the company and employees by the customer. The approach, the strategy, the decisions and judgements, are all reflections of the company. Strategic positioning is likely to reflect that 'some-thing' of a company through the brand, the product or service, the offering it makes to the market place.

The book looks at the role of the history of a company and the personal preferences of senior management in strategic positioning as well as the influ­ences of culture.

Some portray business without a sense of purpose or direc­tion and comprised of separate functional parts as ignoring the need to motivate customers to want to do business. There would then be a need for a business to change its capabilities and resources in order to meet new opportunities and threats that arise, or to accomplish a match with a changing market and environment. This would require real changes rather than superficial modification including change to the behaviours within the organization or adaptability across a range of char­acteristics that define a business, the purpose of which is to influence interactions and fit between the organization and a target segment. The recognition of the need for change is blurred by past success and yet strategy and capability are defined by the portrayal of a whole picture of the organ­ization as perceived by the customer.

Vision expresses identity and direction, the way a business intends to compete and competitive advantage and superior value is distinguished by the distinctive competencies rather than any attempt to be something else. This requires an understanding of organizational life in recognition that it is not that simple.

The book explores the need to be aware of and contribute to, the adjustment or change of an organization's culture as part of the determination of strategy and in particular in the role of positioning as a determinant of strategy.

There always seems to be something more logical, as well as tidy, in chronological sequence. After all, if previous understanding gained either through empirical research or plain advocacy has any purpose, then we should at least acknowledge that others have made important contributions to where we now stand. The book is therefore largely constructed in sequential date order within the chapters and sections. The literature is reviewed chronologically under each main heading on the grounds that progress builds on previous understanding and contribution. Likewise, the explanation of the research design and methodology is assisted by a sequential approach. The case study of Parteisch UK and Parteisch International is chronological, thus providing a logical and more grounded approach and hopefully assisting with the understanding and contribution to the structure and rationale of the book.

Part I considers the context and rationale of the research with some of the evolving ideas that have contributed to the suggestion that pos­itioning is a determinant of strategy.

Part II consists of a review of literature useful to the aims of the research. In particular, Chapter 2 examines segmentation, targeting and positioning; Chapter 3 looks further at positioning and differentiation, the role of personality, and positioning in strategy; Chapter 4 explores the links between positioning and strategy through the review of relevant literature on organizational culture, the family business, change, and vision and mission. Chapter 5 considers selected contemporary reports in newspapers and business journals relevant to the context and rationale of the study.

Part III examines the research design and methodology of the case study with particular emphasis on phenomenological and ethnographic techniques, the use of a longitudinal case study, and the identification of methods of triangulation.

Part IV contains the illusive case study of Parteisch UK and Parteisch International. This case study uses narrative and descriptive methods to underline themes of contemporary business rather than absolute fact. It identifies and highlights the impact of strategic positioning on the organization, the customers, and the long-term strategic approach of a business. It is, of course, the fictional tale of a company that does not exist. No names or characters are real and the particular circumstances do not exist. The case study is the essence of a contem­porary business rather than the fact. After all, tales are merely an expression of who we are and what we have learnt rather than an absolute expression of fact and detail of the particular. This is more fully discussed in Part III.

Part V considers the findings of the case study in Chapter 8 alongside the literature review of Chapters 2, 3, and 4, and the reports from con-temporary business in Chapter 5. This results in the suggestion of six propositions. Chapter 9 describes three studies undertaken as a multi-method approach to triangulate the findings and propositions raised by the case study — a qualitative study of internal perceptions of sales staff

at Parteisch UK, another qualitative study of the market and customers of Parteisch UK, and the quantitative study of the perceptions of senior managers at Parteisch International. An evaluation and validation of the findings of the propositions is undertaken as part of the multi-method approach to this study.

Part VI discusses the findings of the study and puts these findings into the context of positioning and culture as a determinant of strategy. Chapter 10 considers the impact of the findings on marketing management, the implications for practitioners and scholars, as well as possible avenues for future research.

A suggested alternative model forms the basis for the context of this book. This model places strategic positioning at the head of the process of segmentation, targeting and positioning The purpose of this book is to explore the influences on how and where a business decides to compete in order to understand the role of positioning and to identify the possible meaning and context of positioning as a determinant of strategy.

Strategic positioning is distinctive from operational positioning and that strategic positioning is sustained by the genuine capabilities and competencies of a business rather than perceptions and images promoted by communication techniques employed by advertising and promotion. There is a clear implication that the source or driver of strategic positioning is the culture or 'person­ality' of the business as determined by the history of the company and the personal preferences of the owners or senior managers.

If strategic positioning is the outcome of these factors, then the methods of segmentation, the choice of target segment, and customer percep­tions are also likely to be influenced by them. The expression of culture, history, and preferences is likely to be displayed by the behaviours of the business in a similar way to the traits of humans that in sum total lend themselves to the establishment of a metaphorical personality. If organizations have a personality that amounts to a strategic positioning in the minds of customers, then it is an important feature that will be reflected in corporate strategy and indeed, the determination of marketing strategy and all other functional areas across the value chain. A dimin­ution of relevant and meaningful competencies and capabilities to match profitable and growing market segments is likely to have a major and significant effect upon the future success of a business. It suggests that organizations risk becoming stuck in an ever-decreasing circle dictated by their own paradigmatic view of the world, their industry, and their customers. This would mean that effective strategic positioning requires an awareness, as well as recognition, of the need to make adjustment or change to the organization's culture as part of the mar­keting strategy. This is an important and difficult task for all managers in a business organization that seeks growth and durable success. 

Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives by Barbara Mueller (Peter Lang Publishing) brings to light the unique challenges in developing and implementing successful campaigns globally. With a balance of theoretical and practical perspectives, this text takes the reader inside the dynamics of advertising as it functions within the international marketing mix. Filled with current examples and case studies, Dynamics of International Advertising addresses the key issues that advertisers must keep in mind to create effective communication programs for foreign markets: cultural norms and values, political environments, economic policies, social contexts, and more. Both the process and product of international advertising are addressed—from research and strategy development to creative execution and media planning. This is an ideal textbook for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students in specialized courses dealing with international advertising or marketing. It is also an effective supplemental text for introductory advertising, marketing, or mass communications courses seeking to expand coverage of the international dimension. The text should prove useful to practitioners of international advertising, whether on the client side or within the advertising agency. And, finally, researchers of international advertising and marketing will also find the text a valuable resource.

An ever-increasing number of universities—both in the United States and abroad—are attempting to internationalize their curricula by offering courses in international communication, intercultural communication, international business, and international advertising. Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives is a response to the demand for texts dealing with global issues and globalization. First and foremost, it is the ideal text-book for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students in specialized courses dealing with international advertising or marketing. It is also an effective supplemental text for introductory advertising, marketing, or mass communications courses seeking to expand coverage of the international dimension. The text should also prove useful to practitioners of international advertising, whether on the client side or within the advertising agency. Finally, researchers of international advertising and marketing will find it a valuable resource.

This book introduces the student, practitioner, and researcher to the challenges and difficulties in developing and implementing communications programs for foreign markets. While advertising is the major focus, the author recognizes that an integrated marketing communications approach is critical to competing successfully in the international setting. In order to communicate effectively with audiences around the globe, marketers must coordinate not only advertising, direct marketing, sales promotions, personal selling, and public relations efforts, but also the other aspects of the marketing mix as well. Therefore, the basics of inter-national marketing are briefly reviewed in the first several chapters of this text. The remainder of the book explores international advertising.

Every attempt has been made to provide a balance of theoretical and practical perspectives. For example, the issues of centralization versus decentralization and standardization versus localization or specialization are addressed as they apply to the organization of international advertising programs, development and execution of creative strategy, media planning and buying, and advertising research. Readers will find that these are not black-and-white issues. Instead, they can be viewed as a continuum. Some marketing and advertising decisions can be centralized while others may be decentralized. Similarly, depending on the product to be advertised and the audience to be targeted, some elements of the marketing and advertising mix may be standardized while others will be specialized.

This text is not intended to provide a country-by-country analysis of the global market-place (a futile effort, given how quickly our world changes). Instead, using current examples and case studies, Dynamics of International Advertising addresses the key issues that advertisers must keep in mind to create effective communications programs for foreign markets. The text comprises a total of ten chapters. In Chapter 1, factors influencing the growth of international advertising are examined. Chapter 2 highlights the role that product, price, distribution, and promotion play in selling abroad. Domestic advertising and international advertising differ not so much in concept as in environment; the international marketing and advertising environment is outlined in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 is devoted to developing a sensitivity to the various cultural factors that impact international marketing efforts. Chapter 5 addresses the coordination and control of international advertising. Chapter 6 deals with creative strategies and executions for foreign audiences. Chapters 7–9 explore media decisions in the global marketplace, inter-national advertising research and methods for obtaining the information necessary for making international advertising decisions, and, finally, regulatory considerations. Finally, Chapter 10 focuses on the social responsibility of international advertising agencies and multinational corporations in foreign markets.

The Influentials: One American in Ten Tells the Other Nine How to Vote, Where to Eat, and What to Buy  by Jon Berry, Ed Keller (Knopf) One American in ten tells the other nine how to vote, where to eat, and what to buy. They are The Influentials. Who are they? The most influential Americans -- the ones who tell their neighbors what to buy, which politicians to support, and where to vacation -- are not necessarily the people you'd expect. They're not America 's most affluent 10 percent or best-educated 10 percent. They're not the "early adopters," always the first to try everything from Franco-Polynesian fusion cooking to digital cameras. They are, however, the 10 percent of Americans most engaged in their local communities...and they wield a huge amount of influence within those communities. They're the campaigners for open-space initiatives. They're church vestrymen and friends of the local public library. They're the Influentials...and whether or not they are familiar to you, they're very well known to the researchers at RoperASW. For decades, these researchers have been on a quest for marketing's holy grail: that elusive but supremely powerful channel known as word of mouth. What they've learned is that even more important than the "word" -- what is said -- is the "mouth" -- who says it. They've identified, studied, and analyzed influence in America since the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (now Exxon) hired Elmo Roper himself to develop a model for identifying opinion leaders, and in The Influentials, they are finally ready to share their results. A few samples:

• Influentials have been the "early majority" -- leading indicators of what Americans will be buying -- for more than five decades, from choosing energy-efficient cars in the 1970s to owning computers in the 1980s to adopting 401(k)s and IRAs in the 1990s to using the Internet and cell phones today.
• Influentials have led the way in social development as well, from the revival of self-reliance (in managing their own health care, investments, and consumption) to mass skepticism about the marketing claims of everything from breakfast food to politicians.

Although America 's Influentials have always been powerful, they've never been more important than now. Today, a fragmented market has made it possible for Influentials to opt out of mass-message advertising, which means that a different route must be taken to capture their hearts and minds. The Influentials is a map for that route, a map that explains who these people are, how they exercise influence, and how they can be targeted. The Influentials features a series of rules and guidelines for marketing to Influentials; case studies of products that have prospered because of Influential marketing (and products that have failed because they lacked it); a history of the phenomenon...and why Influentials are more influential today than ever; and profiles of twelve real-life Influentials.
Both an intellectual adventure and a hands-on marketing manual, The Influentials is an extraordinary gold mine of information and analysis that no business can afford to ignore.

Sense: The Art and Science of Creating Lasting Brands by Lippincott Mercer (Rockport) In the mid 1950s Lippincott & Margulies began self-publishing Sense, an industry magazine dedicated to exploring the leading issues surrounding identity and design. Each issue contains a series of thought provoking perspectives and insights that explore how companies and their products can become better known and better understood. In addition to insightful case studies on some of their more prominent clients, Sense explores topics such as: How to bridge the gap between reality and perception; What to do after a merger; Establishing a new identity; Struggling for distinctiveness; What's the true measure of a brand?; Foundation for a new business; Managing brand risk, and Corporate Brand and Wall Street.

Sense: The Art and Science of Creating Lasting Brands is a two-book package that celebrates the best of the magazine. The first book is a collection of the articles from all 96 issues and the second book explores each issue visually by showcasing the cover and several spreads. This book provides insights from some of the top talent in identity design and is a must-have for every designer.

Founded in 1945 by Gordon Lippincott, the man who coined the term "corporate identity," Lippincott & Margulies has been a leader in the field of identity design since its inception. Building on its strength in industrial design, Lippincott & Margulies helped pioneer the field of package design and brand identity, and many of its early efforts in these areas still fill blue chip positions in their companies? portfolios. They have worked with over 3000 clients including Amtrack, Betty Crocker, Campbells , Citgo, Coca-Cola, Duracell, FTD, General Mills, Infiniti, MGM, Pizza Hut, and Xerox and are located in New York City .

Using a visual symbol to provide identity is hardly a new idea: Egyptians branded their cattle, knights bore their personal crest on their shields. But for a long time—even after mass marketing had dramatically increased the value of a trademark—what a company stood for and how it communicated that identity wasn't given much thought. Making sure that all the appliances left the factory with the "Westinghouse" nameplate, for instance, was about as complicated as it got.

In fact, it wasn't really until the 1940s—with globalization and the remarkable new reach and speed of communications—that businesses began to recognize the urgent need to control their image. The questions of corporate identity became far more complex than stamping a nameplate on a product: What was the best way to introduce new uses to an appliance? What did Brazilians look for in a refrigerator, and the Swiss crave in a washing machine? What did the name "Westinghouse" mean, anyway, to an American suburbanite, an Asian housewife, a Wall Street investor?  

CEOs—culled almost entirely from the ranks of manufacturing and finance-didn't have the answers. With the fate of their corporate image (and sometimes by extension their corporate fate) in the balance, they turned to a new category of design professionals, visionaries who were convinced that corporate image design would increasingly be key in maintaining corporate esprit and redefining corporate strategy. These designers were zealots, inspired by the ground-breaking products, architecture, and graphic design of companies such as Olivetti in Milan and AEG in Berlin . About that time, J. Gordon Lippincott and Walter P. Margulies opened Lippincott & Margulies. Integrating brand strategy and design, the two laid out a daunting challenge for themselves. Of course, they would provide the basic elements of corporate identity: package design, new product development, naming, graphic design, and research. But they would never forget their ultimate goal was to make sure that the customer's experience of the brand matched the intention of the marketer.

Lippincott Mercer's early design efforts, such as the Tucker automobile, Royal typewriter, and even the U.S.S. Nautilus submarine, had already won them industry attention. But what American business was missing, they felt, was a deeper understanding of the complexities of managing a company's image. And so they created Sense, a publication they hoped would give executives valuable insights into-the many facets of branding and corporate identity. Today, we are still trying to provide a closer look at the challenges of successfully managing-and communicating—a company's image.

Media Selling: Broadcast, Cable, Print, and Interactive edited by Charles Warner, Joseph Buchman (Iowa State University Press) is an update and expansion of the updated, 1993, second edition of Broadcast and Cable Selling. Media convergence, fragmentation, the growth of the Internet, and the growth of cross-platform selling necessitated the in­clusion of all of the advertising-supported media (newspapers, broadcast tele­vision, radio, cable television, yellow pages, magazines, the Internet, and out-door). In the 10 years since the last edition of Broadcast and Cable Selling appeared, direct mail advertising rose from the third-largest medium in terms of advertising expenditures to the top position. Direct mail is not included as one of the media covered in this book because the media, as commonly re­ferred to, are news and entertainment media supported entirely or in part by advertising. The content of direct mail is all advertising and it is a component of the direct-response or direct-marketing business, not the media business.

In the updated edition of Broadcast and Cable Selling, published in 1993, was included a section near the end of the book on sales ethics. In this new edition, the editors decided to move ethics up to the third chapter of the book because it was felt that people who hope to have a career in media selling need to know the rules of the game before they begin playing. Another reason for emphasizing rules and ethics in this book is because the corporate and Wall Street scandals of the last few years have made it more imperative than ever that businesses, includ­ing the media, do the right thing, not only to restore the confidence of in­vestors but also to restore the trust of the public, government regulators, and their own employees.

Earlier editions of Broadcast and Cable Selling dealt with needs-satisfaction selling, but the professional selling climate has evolved from the needs-satisfac­tion approach through consultative selling to solutions selling, today's preferred approach by world-class sales organizations. Solutions selling is the approach used in this book. The ground-breaking work of Daniel Goleman and his part­ners in emotional intelligence has also created a new, highly effective approach to building relationships—always the key to effective selling—and Robert Cialdini's work on the psychology of persuasion and influence has helped us understand the many fundamental psychological principles that direct human behavior. Both of these topics are new in this current edition.

Finally, print, interactive, and outdoor media are included in this book because of the growth of cross-platform selling that is the result of media compa­ny consolidation. Huge media conglomerates such as AOL Time Warner and Viacom are now bundling their media together in large cross-platform deals with major national advertisers. Even on the local level, cross-platform selling is occurring more and more often with combinations such as the ABC Television stations and their local Web sites and Infinity Radio and Infinity Outdoor sell­ing on a cross-platform basis. This trend toward more cross-platform selling means media salespeople of the future must be experts in several media.

Media Selling focuses on several basic concepts:

  • Selling without tricks or manipulation—with authenticity— to build and maintain long-term relationships based on trust.

  • The imperative for honesty, integrity, and ethics in selling in this era of cor­porate misdeeds and erosion of confidence in the media.

  • Attitudes control successful sales performance, and attitudes are controlled by using sound goals and objectives to motivate salespeople and help them achieve their dreams.

  • Developing emotional intelligence—self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management—is necessary for success in selling.

  • Understanding the basic principles of persuasion and influence is important for today's media salesperson.

  • Solutions selling means selling solutions to marketing and advertising problems.

  • Becoming an expert negotiator because a majority of today's media business is conducted through negotiating.

  • Understanding the concepts of marketing and advertising in order to devel­op appropriate solutions.

  • Understanding all media is important in an era of cross-platform selling.

Unique Features

  • A fully integrated and organized selling system—AESKOPP—that enables salespeople and sales managers to organize and evaluate sales efforts.

  • A list of Core Competencies for salespeople that is useful to them and to managers for guiding and evaluating sales performance.

  • A strategic selling approach that emphasizes solving customer problems by de­veloping trusting, long-term relationships using the wisdom of emotional in­telligence and the principles of persuasion and influence.

  • Definitions of the six steps of selling that focus on discovering and under-standing customer needs and wants and solving advertising and marketing problems.

  • Tips on organizing, writing, and delivering major presentations to groups at key accounts.

  • A thorough section on negotiating and closing.

  • Tips on effective sales organization systems, To-Do lists, and time manage­ment.

 Most books on selling tend to assume a salesperson sells a product with a fixed price, and once a salesperson overcomes objections, an order will follow at that price without negotiating. Radio, television, and cable prices have tra­ditionally been negotiated, while newspapers and magazine prices have tradi­tionally been fixed. However, some newspapers' and many magazines' rates are being negotiated more often, especially on a corporate or group basis. Closing becomes a part of the negotiating process and stresses getting commitment rather than trying hard closes, because old-fashioned closing techniques do not work with today's sophisticated media buyers and customers.

Author Charles Warner has done it again. In Media Selling, Warner recrafts his landmark text, Broadcast and Cable Selling, to meet the needs of students and pro­fessionals in all of the advertising-supported media. Like its predecessor, Warner's latest effort is an indispen­sable tool for learning, training, and mastering sales and negotiating techniques for the media.

In the last decade, the media industries have experienced unprecedented consolidation and sweeping change. The third edition of Media Selling addresses these significant industry changes and continues to be the seminal resource for information on media sales. The text includes in-depth and expanded information not only on broadcast and cable selling but also on newspapers, magazines, yellow pages, Interactive, and outdoor media--a necessity in an era of media convergence and cross-platform selling.  

Praised by educators and sales training managers throughout the country, Media Selling, Third Edition advocates a solutions selling approach that one reviewer called "the best synthesis of behavioral psychology, common sense, and professional salesmanship I've ever read."

About the Authors

  • Chad 's Warner has returned to his position as the Leonard H. Goldenson Endowed Professor of Local Broadcasting at the University of Missouri School of journalism after having served as a Vice President of Interactive Marketing for America Online for four years. He also served as Department Chair of Mass Communications at Menlo College and as Vice President and General Manager of CBS Radio Spot Saks and several major radio stations in New York City , Chicago , and Pittsburgh .

  • Joseph Buchman is the co-author of the second edition of Broadcast and Cable Selling. He has taught media management, sales, and marketing at Western Michigan University , Utah State College , and Indiana University . He is currently Director of Graduate Training for The Harmony Institute Training Center; Salt Lake City , Utah .

  • Mark Chessman is a Regional Vice President for America Online, leading the company's advertising sales operations in the Midwest .

  • Ken Foster has written four educational marketing books and taught Marketing Communications and Media Analysis at the University of Utah for 21 years.

  • Phil Frank is Group Vice President, New Business Development at Time, Inc.'s Corporaate Sales Marketing Department.

  • J. Wiliam Grimes has served as President/CEO of four major media companies, including Multimedia Inc., Zenith Media, and ESPN (1981 to 1988), and as Senior Vice President of CBS.

  • Tint Larson is Associate Professor of Communication at the University of Utah and Co-Director of certificate program in Integrated Marketing Communication.

  • Redpath is a Vice President of BIA Financial Network. Prior to joining BIAfn in 1985, he was a Senior Financial Analyst with NBC in New York .

  • Thomas Stub* is Publisher of the Gwinnett Daily Post as well as President of the Publishing Division of Gray Television, Inc.

  • Paul Talbot is Senior Vice President and Market Manager for the Infinity Broadcasting radio stations in. Phoenix , AZ. He was formerly a Director of National Sales at AOL Interactive Marketing.

  • Vincent Thompson is a Regional Vice President for America Online and leads the company's advertising sales operations in the Southwest.


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