The American Aeneas: Classical Origins of the American Self by John C. Shields (University of Tennessee Press) AT FIRST GLANCE, THE TITLE OF THIS BOOK MAY SUGGEST THAT MY AIM IS TO RESURRECT AN ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CULTURAL GRID AND THEN impose it on American thought and culture. In fact, I intend no such resurrection. Nor do I wish to burden the idea of America with some new cultural construct, external or otherwise. Instead, what I propose in this volume is the recovery of a heretofore lost key which unlocks the American self.
Few would dispute that the two modes of discourse which govern the cultures of Europe are the classical and the Judaeo‑Christian. Yet conventional wisdom holds that, when AngloEuropeans, excluding other races and/or ethnicities, colonized the Atlantic shores of what would become the United States of America, these colonizers brought with them only the strand of Judaeo‑Christianity. Somehow the classical strand jumped ship on the way over. Many claim that true Americanness resides exclusively within the myth` of Adam.' At present these claimants, in a latter‑day jeremiad, energetically urge the American public to "return" to what is alleged to have been the founding fathers' Christian values. However, I have found the tenets of the Adamic myth (the JudaeoChristian mythos) insufficient to explain the obvious secularity of the American people.
This book argues that both the largely spiritual Adamic discourse and the largely secular classical discourse crossed over from Europe. These two modes have intermingled dynamically in such a way that both have become rearticulated, in a manner distinct from that of Europe, in order to meet the demands of the American adventure in freedom. This peculiar blending of classical and biblical mythoi on the American strand constitutes the American cultural self. Recovery of this combination can mitigate what some have called America's fear of pastlessness, and perhaps allay that anxiety altogether.
Much of this fear of pastlessness may be attributed to the hegemonic effects of the Adamic myth. This hegemony has concealed the Aeneas myth, or the classical half of the American self, for so long a time that nothing less than a full‑scale reclamation of the American Aeneas can address this loss satisfactorily. Recuperation of the forgotten classical half of the American cultural self, then, is this study's central concern. At the same time, this project interrogates the interconnectedness of the Adamic and the classical discourses. Such a recovery greatly strengthens arguments for an American exceptionalism. such as that made recently by Jack P Greene in Intellectual Construction of America.
For a considerable time I resisted the notion of a classical half of Americanness. So stubborn and so long has been the denigration of the Aeneas myth that an extensive archaeology was required before I could accept this classical half. Eventually, as I recovered a huge quantity of startling evidence that classical thought and culture had contributed mightily to shaping the American self, my skepticism diminished. This previously unseen classical half did and does exist, and recuperation of that half explains much about how and why Americans have acted and thought as they have, and continue to act and to think as they do.
For example, in writing entries for Levemier and Wilmes, American Writers Before 1800, I found that two of my subjects, Joseph Green and Joseph Seccombe, were authors of pastoral elegies, an unrecovered genre of Early American poetry. This form allowed its practitioners to record in poetic mode a tradition. After further investigation, I concluded that neither of these writers sought out Milton's Lycidas as a paradigm for imitation; rather, each (like Miltcbefore them) went directly to Vergil for instruction in this form. Looking farther I determined that Green, writing later than Seccombe, had read Seccombe and borrowed some ideas from him. Green also borrowed from Jeremy Belknap, a consummate classicist and another Early American writer of pastoral elegy. Green, then, was writing as an Early American, not as an imitator of the British Milton, despite the undeniable fact that all of these writers (and virtually all Early American writers, from Cotton Mather to Phillis Wheatley) knew Milton, as well as many other British and Continental authors of this period.
This study advances a subordinate argument, too. When the tenets of the Aeneas myth are allowed to come into play along with those of the Adamic myth while reading the works of Early American writers, their writings (excluding those by Loyalists) do not display a dependence upon British authors. Rather, they demonstrate an originality and independence whose temper predicts the struggle for political and economic independence.
Contrary to conventional wisdom, Early American writers were original thinkers, discovering for themselves an original identity. Recovery of the American Aeneas and its interaction with the Adamic myth necessitates a reevaluation of the whole of American literature created before 1800. While this volume initiates such a reevaluation, in no way does it exhaust this undertaking.
But this combination of classical and Adamic myths is not merely a phenomenon of pre‑Revolutionary America; indeed, it persists in a dialectical relationship even today. The chapters on Hawthorne and Melville demonstrate this persistence. Hawthorne's "My Kinsman, Major Molineaux" and Melville's Billy Budd, rather than other texts, have been selected because practically every person who has taught or taken a survey course in`nineteenth century American literature knows them. While the classical half of the American self persists in virtually all American authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, from James Fenimore Cooper to Willa Cather and beyond, here I have attempted only to establish the presence and persistence of the Aeneas myth.
It would be impossible to treat, in this limited space, the full compass and consequence of the persistence of the Aeneas myth. Nevertheless, I shall suggest some plausible directions that such a reassessment may take. What The American Aeneas sets out to accomplish, then, is to restore America's missing classical half. Doing so will provide a more precise and accurate paradeictic (model used as argument) for the American self, one against which we, without anxiety, may productively and usefully interrogate our self/selves.
Encyclopedia of American Cultural & Intellectual History: From the Puritans to Postmodernism 3 volume set edited by Mary Kupiec Cayton and Peter Williams (0684805618) (Charles Scribners’ Sons: The Gale Group) [volume 1:0684805588 Volume 2: 0684805596 Volume 3: 06848060X] surveys the richly layered dimensions of American life in a format that clarifies the many issues, ideas, movements and places that constitute the American experience. How is the West defined as a cultural region? What did the notions of "secession" and "union" mean to Americans living in the 1860s? How does Disney pervade and influence perceptions about America today? In more than 200 articles written by scholars and enriched with illustrations, boxed biographies and documentary excerpts from primary sources, American thought and culture is thoroughly explored. The Encyclopedia covers not only historic periods such as the Colonial era and the Reagan era, but also looks at cultural groups such as the working class and cultural institutions and forms such as the university and cinema.
presents a comprehensive survey of the shared beliefs, social constructs and material forms of American society and its underpinnings of rational thought, throughout its history. The muiltdisciplinary articles cover a range of subjects ‑ from art; education and science, to social class, race, geography and more. An introductory survey addresses the key ideas of each period of American history, such as Puritanism; Federalism and Transcendentalism. Essays are written around essential themes to ensure that the context of concepts is fully appreciated and understood by both the novice and the experienced scholar. Nor high school and college students, this set is an unparalleled resource for exploring ideas and movements that have shaped American history.
Multidisciplinary coverage supports the curriculum
High school students writing papers in American history, civics, multicultural studies, geography
College students taking courses in anthropology, women's studies, political science, philosophy, religious and cultural studies
Public library collections supporting U.S. history, American studies, philosophy and the arts
230 illustrated articles organized by theme
Alphabetical table of contents
Boxed biographies and documentary excerpts from primary sources in each article
Chronology, bibliographies, index
Excerpt from Editors Introduction:
Since the arrival of Europeans on New World soil over a half a millennium ago, "Americans" have been reflecting on human existence and expressing their thoughts and emotions in an extraordinary variety of ways. The encounter of native peoples with European newcomers initially led to mutual puzzlement and speculation on the nature of these reciprocal strangers. The importation of Africans as slaves generated further speculation on the part of Euro-Americans as to the essential character of humanity, its oneness or its manyness. Subsequent waves of voluntary immigrants, eventually from the entire world, further complicated and enriched the process, rendering the new republic both a microcosm of the planet as well as a unique society, continually shifting its physical, social, and cultural accommodation to the presence of novelty. For over five hundred years, the amalgams of peoples who have comprised the American experiment have made sense of their experience through the exchange of ideas and through artistic expression.
These three volumes are an attempt to comprehend the ever‑changing character and rich variety of American thought and expression. Euro‑Americans in particular have reflected the thought patterns of their transatlantic homelands, bending those patterns to fit New World realities. Britain contributed much of the initial framework for reflection on such matters as the nature of humanity, society, and divinity, as well as the primary language of discourse. Soon, however, competing paradigms emerged. In music and religion, for example, African elements rapidly complemented and rivaled the European in providing alternate patterns of expression. The coming together of Catholic and Jew, Saxon and Slav, black and white in the urban crucibles of the late nineteenth century set the groundwork for unparalleled cultural production. The image of "mongrel Manhattan" in the 1920s, might well be extended to describe an entire nation where periodic campaigns of cultural purification proved helpless against the ceaseless tides of adaptation, accommodation, and uninhibited invention.
With this Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History, the editors were pleased to renew a collaboration begun with Scribners in the Encyclopedia of American Social History (1993). Like that set, the present work attempts to present systematically the most important scholarly insights and discussions in the field. In the manner of the earlier sets in the Scribner American Civilization series, these volumes are composed of entries in the systematic "reference essay" genre that Scribners is proud of having invented. More thoroughly than the usual encyclopedia entry and more accessibly than the typical academic journal article, each essay surveys a (limited) field of inquiry and provides an interpretation in the process.
As with the prior series, the editors have decided to arrange the contents architectonically rather than alphabetically, so that the structure of the work itself provides an overview of the entire field. The first eight sections are chronological, surveying the major periods of American history from the arrival of Europeans to the beginning of the twenty‑first century. Each section begins with an introductory overview essay that provides context for the more specialized topics that follow.
Part 9 goes on to treat the thought and expression of several groups with distinctive identities derived from gender, race, religion, ethnicity, or sexual preference. In the interests of brevity, we were forced to make difficult decisions based on representativeness and distinctiveness. Similarly, in Part 10, attempts to choose a variety of cities and regions with distinctive or influential cultural histories without attempting to include every possibility. Part 11 includes topics relating to the natural order, the divine, and the construction of the human personality in American thought. The next three sections address discourse about the political, economic, and social orders. Part 15 surveys the various ways in which knowledge of all sorts has been categorized, institutionalized, pursued, financed, and disseminated. The next section looks serially at the most important media and genres through which ideas and cultural products have been conveyed, addressing their distinctive characteristics and their unfolding in the American context. The final unit is theoretically oriented, and surveys a variety of major schools of thought in the interpretation of intellectual and cultural phenomena.
The 221 essays are supplemented by a variety of sidebars that excerpt original texts or provide other illustrative materials. In addition, many of the essays are accompanied by illustrations of works or figures dealt with in them. Each essay also includes a bibliography offering a selective guide to further reading.
Since the meanings of the terms "cultural" and "intellectual" are not self-evident, we submit the following as working definitions for our purposes. Within the realm of intellectual history we include the following:
Within the realm of cultural history, we include these topics:
As a general rule, we have tried to include particular ideas or movements that had an impact on Americans in their own day; those that produced a continuing impact on American thought and expression; and those that have emerged as influential only in later times.
In 1993, our social history encyclopedia gained a certain coherence and by virtue of the pervasive Marxian or materialist strain and the determination to focus on groups of persons previously neglected historiographically. Race, class, and gender were and to a very great extent still are‑watchwords of the day. The field of social history, despite its new methodologies and subject matters, by and large maintained professional historians' faith in the existence of a recoverable past. Absent stories of various peoples and groups could be recovered and reconsidered in the light of new knowledge, making for a more accurate and just version of the past. It was not until the social history movement was well under way that questions about the objectivity of historical practice‑first raised in a significant way in the 1930s‑were revived in new guises. Contemporary cultural and intellectual historians of the last two decades have labored inescapably in their shadow,
The questions came from a variety of directions. Skepticism about authority and power, increasing in the United States from the 1960s through the scandals and disillusionments of subsequent decades, led to questioning of the motives and good faith of institutions and persons. Knowledge, no longer a neutral ideal discovered by credentialed experts, became a political commodity subject to popular debate. Within the academy, poststructuralist and postmodernist theory aimed to unsettle all forms of certainty, providing critiques of the taken‑for-granted and the commonsensical. If, for much of the twentieth century, knowledge had been popularly seen pragmatically as a lever to move the world, by the end of the century, many feared that it was losing its fulcrum or grounding.
In the realm of theory, poststructuralism and postmodernism did not‑or have not yet‑altered in significant ways the basic practices of writing history. Most historians still see themselves reconstructing a past that really existed in some form, even if no historian will ever be able to recapture it in its entirety and without bias. At the same time, no historian has been immune to questions about the ways in which perspective colors our reconstructions of the past. Dealing with the issues raised by perspectivalism has been a particularly thought provoking business for intellectual and cultural historians. Ideas and public artistic expression, the main subjects of these volumes, never operate at the level of raw experience; they are always at one remove. To articulate an idea or communicate through a work of art, we must always construct a way of experiencing the world: What things, drawn from the vast array of human utterance and expression, are worth examining, recording, and remembering? The choice, we have discovered, is always a political question, and always a question of values. What we say, or even think to say, depends on the experience and questions we bring to our investigation.
Readers will find that the essays in this encyclopedia reflect a number of issues and trends peculiar not only to cultural and intellectual history but to much contemporary historical practice. At the outset it was not our intent as editors to showcase these issues. But as essays were drafted on a wide variety of topics, it became clear that the field we examine here is in flux and full of creative challenge and tension.
First, readers will note little general agreement among authors on essential common denominators involved in the study of ideas, intellectuals, and public expression in the American past. Current scholarship is rich and diverse; and it sprawls without apology in many different directions. In contrast to our examination of social history scholarship, where themes converged and a few major paradigms ruled the day, we found few implicitly accepted assumptions about what should count as cultural or intellectual history today and what should not‑and little debate about the question. As genres have expanded and their limits have blurred over the last generation, the boundaries defining these two categories of scholarship have become less than clear‑cut, and perhaps less important as well.
Unable to deal with, or even to define, intellectual or cultural history in every possible sense, we (along with our board of editors) have made some fairly pragmatic and arbitrary decisions about the limits of the current project. For example, although many historians today might consider a variety of ethnographic histories and popular culture studies as falling under the rubric of either intellectual or cultural history, these are already well represented in the Encyclopedia of American Social History and we do not cover them here. We direct readers interested in such topics to the earlier set. For the sake of unity and clarity, we deal here with culture primarily as it manifests itself in concrete ways in the broader public sphere, most particularly as artifacts, institutions, and approaches identified with important public figures or groups.
Along with the blurring of lines among genres, readers may also note a certain division in these essays between attempts to reconstruct the past as it existed and those more nearly oriented to exploring the assumptions we use to construct the past. Contemporary intellectual and cultural history includes both kinds of scholarship. Authors have sometimes chosen to approach their topics by examining how we have come to think about a particular notion or topic in history rather than by looking directly at lived experience. In the essay on "Women," for example, Louise Stevenson might have chosen to narrate a story about particular contributions that particular women or groups of women have made to intellectual and cultural life in the United States. Instead, she chooses to tell a story about women's inclusion and exclusion in intellectual history over time, underlining the ways in which the categories and the definitions we use to produce knowledge may be as important as anything we may "discover" in the fabric of the past. Elsewhere in these volumes, readers will encounter other essays where the author looks more closely at change over time in the nature of knowledge than at concrete experience and accomplishment in the past.
As with the Encyclopedia of American Social History, readers will undoubtedly notice that the identity categories of race, gender, class, sexual preference, and ethnicity have made a difference in contemporary cultural and intellectual historical scholarship, although perhaps not nearly to as great an extent as in social history. When commissioning essays, we provided potential contributors with exactly the same guidelines with regard to inclusiveness as we did for Social History. Wherever possible, consider the experiences and contributions of those with a variety of cultural affiliations and identities. The result this time has been different. Over time, we discovered some things that scholars working with the ideas and cultural expression of non‑dominant groups have probably long known. First, the notion of a "general public sphere" of discourse with which we began is problematic. Because we focus here on public discourse and expression, the intellectual and cultural expression of persons and groups excluded from the public sphere at various times is less visible than any might wish. Second, because the general "public sphere" serves the needs of some groups better than others, many delimited spheres also exist. These reflect the experiences and ideas of particular groups defined along racial, ethnic, religious, gender, sexual, or regional lines. Aspects of African American public culture that become visible to non-blacks, for example, may represent only the tip of the iceberg, as topics or forms of expression mainly of interest to African Americans never make their way into the more general discourse. To deal thoroughly with cultural and intellectual expression among Americans, we need reconstructions on their own terms of the intellectual and cultural lives of peoples who have not dominated discussion and expression in the public sphere. Any future study of American cultural and intellectual history undoubtedly will look different as more scholarly studies of this sort become available. We hope such studies will benefit from our attempt to lay the groundwork.Finally, readers will surely notice among the present essays an increased tendency among authors to take explicit or implicit political stands regarding their topics. Many scholars have questioned the ideal of objectivity in historical writing, particularly in disciplines where postmodern theory has exercised a strong influence. They believe that absolute neutrality in treating the past is neither possible nor desirable. The editors believe that a project such as this one should reflect the state of the art, and we have not insisted that authors attempt to conceal political biases. At the same time, we believe that in a comprehensive work, even essays with strong points of view need to present different sides of an issue fairly and accurately. Where an essay takes a perspective critical of existing institutions and practices, for example, we think that the author has an obligation to represent what may be at stake from a more conservative point of view as well. Conversely, an author who is critical of particular efforts to reform or change still has an obligation to represent them fairly. Our rule of thumb has been that even when all sides cannot be presented, the approach should be fair and complete enough so that a person holding an opposing point of view would acknowledge the representation to be accurate. Readers will note a fair number of essays in this set where the authors have not been shy about staking out positions on controversial topics.
Selection of topic from Index: Abolitionism Academic disciplines ACT‑UP Adult education Advertising Affirmative action AIDS Alien and Sedition act Alien Land Act Amana, Iowa American Acad. Arts/Letters American Bar Association American Broadcasting Co. American Football League American Library Assoc. Amusements parks Antebellum era Anticommunism Anti‑Semitism Antislavery Antiwar movement Architecture Armory Show (NYC, 1913) Art Automobile industry Avant‑garde Baptists Beat writers Bible Black church Boston Buildings Capitalism Censorship Chicago Childhood Churches Citizenship Civil rights movement Colleges and universities Communications Community Conservatism Consumerism Cooperatives Counterculture Crafts Dance Dance halls Decorative arts Democracy Democratic Party Demographics Deregulation Design Discrimination Divorce Domesticity, ideology Drama Dreams Dutch Early America Early republic Economics Education Elections Elitism Engineering Enlightenment Entertainment Environmentalism Ethnicity Evangelicalism Evolution Exhibits, art Expansion Expatriate artists Factories Family Farming Fashion Federalism Federalists Feminism Festivals Fiction Film industry Films Folklore Ford Motor Company Foreign policy Freedom Friendship Furniture Fur trade Gay rights movement Gays and lesbians Gender Gender roles Gentility and manners German Americans Government Great Awakening Great Depression Greenwich Village Harlem Renaissance Harvard University Health Heroes Higher education Hispanics Hollywood Homes Hospitals Housing Identity Ideologies Immigrants and immigration Individualism Industrialists Industrialization Institutions Intellectuals Intelligence Irish Americans Italian Americans Jazz Jews Journalism Journals Judaism Knowledge Labor Labor movement Labor organization Landscapes Language Law Lawyers Learned societies Lectures Leisure Liberalism Libraries Library of Congress Library science, school of Life (magazine) Lutherans Lynching Literature Lithographs Magazines Management Manhood Manifest Destiny Maps Marches Market economy Marketing Marriage Masculinity Mass media Mass production Material life Mathematics Medicine Membership libraries Methodism Methodology Middle class Mills Minimalism Mining Missionary societies Missions Modernism Monopolies Monuments and memorials Morality Moral philosophy Motherhood Multiculturalism Multimedia conglomerates Murals Museums Music Musical instruments Musicals Mutual aid societies Myth and symbol Nationalism Native Americans Naturalism Natural sciences Natural wood New Deal New Left New Right News Newspapers Nickelodeons Novels Opera Optimism Oral tradition Orators Orchestras Organic foods Pacifism Painting Parades Parks Patents Patriotism Patronage Periodicals Personality Philanthropy Philosophy Photography Physical education Plantation society Poetry Political conventions Political correctness Political economy Politics Pool halls Poor relief Pop art Popular arts Popular culture Population Populism Pornography Portraitists Portraits Positive thinking Postmodernism Poststructmalism Post‑surrealism Pottery Poverty Power Pragmatism Preaching Presbyterians Presidential powers Press Printing Professional associations Professionalization Professionals Professionals sports Progress Progressive Era Progressive movement Progressive reformers Prohibition Propaganda Prostitution Protestantism Psychology Public buildings Public education Public health movement Public speaking Public sphere Publishing Puritans Quakers Quality of life Queer studies Quilts Quiz show scandals Rabbis Race Racism Radicalism Radio Radio programs Railroads Rape crisis centers & hotlines Reading Realism Reconstruction Recording industry Reform Reform movement Refugees Regionalism Religion Religious tolerance Reporters Republicanism Republican Party Research Research universities Retail Ritual Rituals Robber barons Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholics Romanticism Rural life Salons Saloons School district libraries Schools Science Science fiction Scientific racism Scientific societies Scots‑Irish Screenwriting Sculpture Second City Second Great Awakening Self Self‑culture SelfHelp Graphics and Art Self‑improvement Self‑reliance Seminaries Semiotics Sentimentalism Separate‑but‑equal doctrine Separate spheres Sermons Settlement houses Sex as commodity mass cult. Sexuality Shakers Skyscrapers Slave culture/consciousness Slave folktales Slave laws Slave narratives Slave religious traditions Slavery Slaves Smithsonian Institution Social classes Social criticism Socialism Socialist Party Social reform Social sciences Social Security Act Social status Society Sociology Songs Sound recordings South, the Space program Spectator sports Spirituality Spirituals Sports Star system Statistics Stereotypes Stock market crash Strikes Students Suburbia Success Suffering Suffrage Sunday schools Supreme Court Surrealism Symbols Taverns Taxes Tea Teachers Technology Television Television programs Temperance movement Textbooks Textiles Theaters Theology Think tanks Tourism Town planning Trade Trademarks Trade unions Trail of Tears Transcendentalism Transportation Travel Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire (1911) Truth Underground railroad Unitarianism United Auto Workers United Farm Workers United Mine Workers United Nations United Negro Improvement Association United States Postal Service Urban cultural institutions Urbanization U.S. Capitol Utopianism Vaudeville Vietnam War Violence Visual arts Voluntary organization Voting War Water Web pages Welfare Whig Party Whiteness White supremacy Witchcraft Women Women's liberation Women's movement Women's rights movement Women's suffrage Work Working class Workplace World's fairs World War I World War II Wounded Knee massacre Zoot Suit riots
insert content here